HollyFrontier Corporation
HollyFrontier Corp (Form: 10-K, Received: 02/22/2017 16:47:48)



UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
_________________________________________________________________
FORM 10-K
_________________________________________________________________
(Mark One)
ý
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016
OR
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from    __________   to   ____________         
Commission File Number 1-3876
 _________________________________________________________________
HOLLYFRONTIER CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
_________________________________________________________________
Delaware
 
75-1056913
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
 
 
 
2828 N. Harwood, Suite 1300
Dallas, Texas
 
75201-1507
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(214) 871-3555
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
_________________________________________________________________
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common Stock, $0.01 par value registered on the New York Stock Exchange.

Securities registered pursuant to 12(g) of the Act:
None.
_________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes   ý     No   ¨

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15 (d) of the Act. Yes   ¨     No   ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15 (d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.     Yes   ý     No   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).     Yes   ý     No   ¨
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant's knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.        ý
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
ý
Accelerated filer
¨
Non-accelerated filer
¨
Smaller reporting company
¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).     Yes   ¨     No   ý
On June 30, 2016 , the last business day of the registrant's most recently completed second fiscal quarter, the aggregate market value of the Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $3.8 billion , based upon the closing price on the New York Stock Exchange on such date. (This is not deemed an admission that any person whose shares were not included in the computation of the amount set forth in the preceding sentence necessarily is an “affiliate” of the registrant.)
177,360,162 shares of Common Stock, par value $.01 per share, were outstanding on February 17, 2017 .
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant's proxy statement for its annual meeting of stockholders to be held on May 11, 2017 , which proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission within 120 days after December 31, 2016 , are incorporated by reference in Part III.



Table of Content

TABLE OF CONTENTS


Item
Page
 
 
PART I
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART II
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
PART III
 
 
 
 
 
PART IV
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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PART I

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Annual Report on Form 10‑K contains certain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws. All statements, other than statements of historical fact included in this Form 10-K, including, but not limited to, those under “Business and Properties” in Items 1 and 2, “Risk Factors” in Item 1A, “Legal Proceedings” in Item 3 and “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements use words such as “anticipate,” “project,” “expect,” “plan,” “goal,” “forecast,” “intend,” “should,” “would,” “could,” “believe,” “may,” and similar expressions and statements regarding our plans and objectives for future operations. These statements are based on management's beliefs and assumptions using currently available information and expectations as of the date hereof, are not guarantees of future performance and involve certain risks and uncertainties. All statements concerning our expectations for future results of operations are based on forecasts for our existing operations and do not include the potential impact of any future acquisitions. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot assure you that our expectations will prove to be correct. Therefore, actual outcomes and results could materially differ from what is expressed, implied or forecast in these statements. Any differences could be caused by a number of factors including, but not limited to:

risks and uncertainties with respect to the actions of actual or potential competitive suppliers of refined petroleum products in our markets;
the demand for and supply of crude oil and refined products;
the spread between market prices for refined products and market prices for crude oil;
the possibility of constraints on the transportation of refined products;
the possibility of inefficiencies, curtailments or shutdowns in refinery operations or pipelines;
effects of governmental and environmental regulations and policies;
the availability and cost of our financing;
the effectiveness of our capital investments and marketing strategies;
our efficiency in carrying out construction projects;
our ability to acquire refined product operations or pipeline and terminal operations on acceptable terms and to integrate any existing or future acquired operations, including Petro-Canada Lubricants Inc.;
the possibility of terrorist attacks and the consequences of any such attacks;
general economic conditions; and
other financial, operational and legal risks and uncertainties detailed from time to time in our Securities and Exchange Commission filings.

Cautionary statements identifying important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from our expectations are set forth in this Form 10-K, including without limitation the forward-looking statements that are referred to above. When considering forward-looking statements, you should keep in mind the risk factors and other cautionary statements set forth in this Form 10-K under “Risk Factors” in Item 1A and in conjunction with the discussion in this Form 10-K in “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the heading “Liquidity and Capital Resources.” All forward-looking statements included in this Form 10-K and all subsequent written or oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by these cautionary statements. The forward-looking statements speak only as of the date made and, other than as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.



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DEFINITIONS

Within this report, the following terms have these specific meanings:
 
“Alkylation” means the reaction of propylene or butylene (olefins) with isobutane to form an iso-paraffinic gasoline (inverse of cracking).

“Aromatic oil” is long chain oil that is highly aromatic in nature and is used to manufacture tires and industrial rubber products and in the production of specialty asphalt.

BPD ” means the number of barrels per calendar day of crude oil or petroleum products.
 
BPSD ” means the number of barrels per stream day (barrels of capacity in a 24 hour period) of crude oil or petroleum products.

“Biodiesel” means an alternative fuel produced from renewable biological resources.

Black wax crude oil ” is a low sulfur, low gravity crude oil produced in the Uintah Basin in Eastern Utah that has certain characteristics that require specific facilities to transport, store and refine into transportation fuels.

“Catalytic reforming” means a refinery process which uses a precious metal (such as platinum) based catalyst to convert low octane naphtha to high octane gasoline blendstock and hydrogen. The hydrogen produced from the reforming process is used to desulfurize other refinery oils and is a primary source of hydrogen for the refinery.
 
Cracking ” means the process of breaking down larger, heavier and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules.

Crude oil distillation ” means the process of distilling vapor from liquid crudes, usually by heating, and condensing the vapor slightly above atmospheric pressure turning it back to liquid in order to purify, fractionate or form the desired products.

Ethanol ” means a high octane gasoline blend stock that is used to make various grades of gasoline.

FCC ,” or fluid catalytic cracking, means a refinery process that breaks down large complex hydrocarbon molecules into smaller more useful ones using a circulating bed of catalyst at relatively high temperatures.

Hydrodesulfurization ” means to remove sulfur and nitrogen compounds from oil or gas in the presence of hydrogen and a catalyst at relatively high temperatures.

Hydrogen plant ” means a refinery unit that converts natural gas and steam to high purity hydrogen, which is then used in the hydrodesulfurization, hydrocracking and isomerization processes.

“HF alkylation” or hydrofluoric alkylation, means a refinery process which combines isobutane and C3/C4 olefins using HF acid as a catalyst to make high octane gasoline blend stock.
 
Isomerization ” means a refinery process for rearranging the structure of C5/C6 molecules without changing their size or chemical composition and is used to improve the octane of C5/C6 gasoline blendstocks.

LPG ” means liquid petroleum gases.

Lubricant ” or “ lube ” means a solvent neutral paraffinic product used in commercial heavy duty engine oils, passenger car oils and specialty products for industrial applications such as heat transfer, metalworking, rubber and other general process oil.

“MSAT2” means Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Mobile Sources, a rule issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to reduce hazardous emissions from motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels.

“MEK” means a lube process that separates waxy oil from non-waxy oils using methyl ethyl ketone as a solvent.

MMBTU ” means one million British thermal units.


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“Natural gasoline” means a low octane gasoline blend stock that is purchased and used to blend with other high octane stocks produced to make various grades of gasoline.

“Paraffinic oil” is a high paraffinic, high gravity oil produced by extracting aromatic oils and waxes from gas oil and is used in producing high-grade lubricating oils.

Refinery gross margin ” means the difference between average net sales price and average product costs per produced barrel of refined products sold. This does not include the associated depreciation and amortization costs.

“Reforming” means the process of converting gasoline type molecules into aromatic, higher octane gasoline blend stocks while producing hydrogen in the process.

“RINs” means renewable identification numbers and refers to serial numbers assigned to credits generated from biodiesel production under the Environmental Protection Agency’s Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (“RFS2”) regulations that mandate increased volumes of renewable fuels blended into the nation’s fuel supply. In lieu of blending, refiners may purchase these transferable credits in order to comply with the regulations.

“Roofing flux” is produced from the bottom cut of crude oil and is the base oil used to make roofing shingles for the housing industry.

“ROSE,” or “Solvent deasphalter / residuum oil supercritical extraction,” means a refinery unit that uses a light hydrocarbon like propane or butane to extract non-asphaltene heavy oils from asphalt or atmospheric reduced crude. These deasphalted oils are then further converted to gasoline and diesel in the FCC process. The remaining asphaltenes are either sold, blended to fuel oil or blended with other asphalt as a hardener.

“Scanfiner” is a refinery unit that removes sulfur from gasoline to produce low sulfur gasoline blendstock.

Sour crude oil ” means crude oil containing quantities of sulfur greater than 0.4 percent by weight, while “ sweet crude oil ” means crude oil containing quantities of sulfur equal to or less than 0.4 percent by weight.

Vacuum distillation ” means the process of distilling vapor from liquid crudes, usually by heating, and condensing the vapor below atmospheric pressure turning it back to a liquid in order to purify, fractionate or form the desired products.
 
“WTI” means West Texas Intermediate and is a grade of crude oil used as a common benchmark in oil pricing. WTI is a sweet crude oil and has a relatively low density.


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Items 1 and 2. Business and Properties


COMPANY OVERVIEW

References herein to HollyFrontier Corporation (“HollyFrontier”) include HollyFrontier and its consolidated subsidiaries. In accordance with the Securities and Exchange Commission's (“SEC”) “Plain English” guidelines, this Annual Report on Form 10-K has been written in the first person. In this document, the words “we,” “our,” “ours” and “us” refer only to HollyFrontier and its consolidated subsidiaries or to HollyFrontier or an individual subsidiary and not to any other person, with certain exceptions. Generally, the words “we,” “our,” “ours” and “us” include Holly Energy Partners, L.P. (“HEP”) and its subsidiaries as consolidated subsidiaries of HollyFrontier, unless when used in disclosures of transactions or obligations between HEP and HollyFrontier or its other subsidiaries. This document contains certain disclosures of agreements that are specific to HEP and its consolidated subsidiaries and do not necessarily represent obligations of HollyFrontier. When used in descriptions of agreements and transactions, “HEP” refers to HEP and its consolidated subsidiaries.

We are principally an independent petroleum refiner that produces high-value light products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, specialty lubricant products, and specialty and modified asphalt. We were incorporated in Delaware in 1947 and maintain our principal corporate offices at 2828 N. Harwood, Suite 1300, Dallas, Texas 75201-1507. Our telephone number is 214-871-3555 and our internet website address is www.hollyfrontier.com . The information contained on our website does not constitute part of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. A print copy of this Annual Report on Form 10-K will be provided without charge upon written request to the Vice President, Investor Relations at the above address. A direct link to our SEC filings is available on our website under the Investor Relations tab. Also available on our website are copies of our Corporate Governance Guidelines, Audit Committee Charter, Compensation Committee Charter, Nominating / Corporate Governance Committee Charter, Environmental, Health, Safety, and Public Policy Committee Charter and Code of Business Conduct and Ethics, all of which will be provided without charge upon written request to the Vice President, Investor Relations at the above address. Our Code of Business Conduct and Ethics applies to all of our officers, employees and directors, including our principal executive officer, principal financial officer and principal accounting officer. Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “HFC.”

As of December 31, 2016 , we:
owned and operated a petroleum refinery in El Dorado, Kansas (the "El Dorado Refinery"), two refinery facilities located in Tulsa, Oklahoma (collectively, the "Tulsa Refineries"), a refinery in Artesia, New Mexico that is operated in conjunction with crude oil distillation and vacuum distillation and other facilities situated 65 miles away in Lovington, New Mexico (collectively, the “Navajo Refinery”), a refinery located in Cheyenne, Wyoming (the "Cheyenne Refinery") and a refinery in Woods Cross, Utah (the “Woods Cross Refinery”);
owned and operated HollyFrontier Asphalt Company (“HFC Asphalt”) which operates various asphalt terminals in Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma;
owned a 37% interest in HEP, which includes our 2% general partner interest.

On October 29, 2016, our wholly-owned subsidiary, 9952110 Canada Inc., entered into a share purchase agreement with Suncor Energy Inc. (“Suncor”) to acquire 100% of the outstanding capital stock of Petro-Canada Lubricants Inc. (“PCLI”) that closed on February 1, 2017. Cash consideration paid was $862.1 million, or $1.125 billion in Canadian dollars.

PCLI is located in Mississauga, Ontario and is the largest producer of base oils in Canada with a plant having 15,600 BPD of lubricant production capacity, and is the only North American producer of high margin Group III base oils. The facility is downstream integrated from base oils to finished lubricants and produces a broad spectrum of specialty lubricants and white oils that are distributed to end customers worldwide. The acquisition brings HollyFrontier industry-leading product innovation and research and development capabilities, a global sales and distribution network and a strong brand portfolio recognized globally. With this transaction, we have also acquired a perpetual exclusive license to use the Petro-Canada trademark in association with the lubricant products. With the addition of PCLI, HollyFrontier becomes the fourth largest lubricants producer in North America with a capacity of 28,000 BPD, approximately 10% of North American production.

HEP is a consolidated variable interest entity (“VIE”) as defined under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”). Information on HEP's assets and acquisitions completed between 2012 and 2016 can be found under the “Holly Energy Partners, L.P.” section provided later in this discussion of Items 1 and 2, “Business and Properties.”


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Our operations are currently organized into two reportable segments, Refining and HEP. The Refining segment includes the operations of our El Dorado, Tulsa, Navajo, Cheyenne and Woods Cross Refineries and HFC Asphalt. The HEP segment involves all of the operations of HEP. See Note 20 “Segment Information” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our reportable segments.


REFINERY OPERATIONS

Our refinery operations serve the Mid-Continent, Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. We own and operate five complex refineries having a combined crude oil processing capacity of 457,000 barrels per stream day. Each of our refineries has the complexity to convert discounted, heavy and sour crude oils into a high percentage of gasoline, diesel and other high-value refined products. For 2016 , gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and specialty lubricants (excluding volumes purchased for resale) represented 52% , 35% , 4% and 3% , respectively, of our total refinery sales volumes.

The tables presented below and elsewhere in this discussion of our refinery operations set forth information, including non-GAAP performance measures, about our refinery operations. The cost of products and refinery gross and net operating margins do not include the non-cash effects of lower of cost or market inventory valuation adjustments and depreciation and amortization. Reconciliations to amounts reported under GAAP are provided under “Reconciliations to Amounts Reported Under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles” following Item 7A of Part II of this Form 10-K.
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Consolidated
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crude charge (BPD) (1)
 
423,910

 
432,560

 
406,180

Refinery throughput (BPD) (2)
 
457,480

 
463,580

 
436,400

Refinery production (BPD) (3)
 
442,110

 
446,560

 
425,010

Sales of produced refined products (BPD)
 
435,420

 
438,000

 
420,990

Sales of refined products (BPD) (4)
 
464,980

 
488,350

 
461,640

Refinery utilization (5)
 
92.8
%
 
97.6
%
 
91.7
%
Average per produced barrel (6)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
 
$
58.02

 
$
71.32

 
$
110.19

Cost of products (7)
 
49.64

 
55.25

 
96.21

Refinery gross margin (8)
 
8.38

 
16.07

 
13.98

Refinery operating expenses (9)
 
5.57

 
5.71

 
6.38

Net operating margin (8)
 
$
2.81

 
$
10.36

 
$
7.60

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Refinery operating expenses per throughput barrel (10)
 
$
5.30

 
$
5.39

 
$
6.16

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Feedstocks:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sweet crude oil
 
48
%
 
51
%
 
53
%
Sour crude oil
 
26
%
 
25
%
 
23
%
Heavy sour crude oil
 
16
%
 
15
%
 
15
%
Black wax crude oil
 
3
%
 
2
%
 
2
%
Other feedstocks and blends
 
7
%
 
7
%
 
7
%
Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%

(1)
Crude charge represents the barrels per day of crude oil processed at our refineries.
(2)
Refinery throughput represents the barrels per day of crude and other refinery feedstocks input to the crude units and other conversion units at our refineries.
(3)
Refinery production represents the barrels per day of refined products yielded from processing crude and other refinery feedstocks through the crude units and other conversion units at our refineries.
(4)
Includes refined products purchased for resale.
(5)
Represents crude charge divided by total crude capacity (BPSD). Effective July 1, 2016, our consolidated crude capacity increased from 443,000 BPSD to 457,000 BPSD upon completion of our Woods Cross Refinery expansion project.
(6)
Represents average per barrel amount for produced refined products sold, which is a non-GAAP measure. Reconciliations to amounts reported under GAAP are provided under “Reconciliations to Amounts Reported Under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles” following Item 7A of Part II of this Form 10-K.
(7)
Transportation, terminal and refinery storage costs billed from HEP are included in cost of products.

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(8)
Excludes lower of cost or market inventory valuation adjustments that increased refinery gross margin by $291.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 and decreased refinery gross margin by $227.0 million and $397.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.
(9)
Represents operating expenses of our refineries, exclusive of depreciation and amortization.
(10)
Represents refinery operating expenses, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, divided by refinery throughput.

Principal Products and Customers
Set forth below is information regarding our principal products.
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Consolidated
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales of produced refined products:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gasolines
 
52
%
 
52
%
 
50
%
Diesel fuels
 
35
%
 
35
%
 
34
%
Jet fuels
 
4
%
 
4
%
 
4
%
Fuel oil
 
2
%
 
1
%
 
2
%
Asphalt
 
2
%
 
2
%
 
3
%
Lubricants
 
3
%
 
3
%
 
2
%
LPG and other
 
2
%
 
3
%
 
5
%
Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%

Light products are shipped to customers via product pipelines or are available for loading at our refinery truck facilities and terminals. Light products are also made available to customers at various other locations via exchange with other parties.

Our principal customers for gasoline include other refiners, convenience store chains, independent marketers and retailers. Diesel fuel is sold to other refiners, truck stop chains, wholesalers and railroads. Jet fuel is sold for commercial airline use. Specialty lubricant products are sold in both commercial and specialty markets. LPG's are sold to LPG wholesalers and LPG retailers. We produce and purchase asphalt products that are sold to governmental entities, paving contractors or manufacturers. Asphalt is also blended into fuel oil and is either sold locally or is shipped to the Gulf Coast. See Note 22 “Significant Customers” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our significant customers.


Mid-Continent Region (El Dorado and Tulsa Refineries)

Facilities
The El Dorado Refinery is a high-complexity coking refinery with a 135,000 barrels per stream day processing capacity and the ability to process significant volumes of heavy and sour crudes. The integrated refining processes at the Tulsa West and East refinery facilities provide us with a highly complex refining operation having a combined crude processing rate of approximately 125,000 barrels per stream day. For 2016 , gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel and specialty lubricants (excluding volumes purchased for resale) represented 50% , 33% , 7% and 5% , respectively, of our Mid-Continent sales volumes.


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The following table sets forth information about our Mid-Continent region operations, including non-GAAP performance measures.
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Mid-Continent Region (El Dorado and Tulsa Refineries)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crude charge (BPD) (1)
 
262,170

 
263,340

 
243,240

Refinery throughput (BPD) (2)
 
280,920

 
277,260

 
255,020

Refinery production (BPD) (3)
 
269,840

 
266,170

 
249,350

Sales of produced refined products (BPD)
 
261,200

 
258,420

 
245,600

Sales of refined products (BPD) (4)
 
285,080

 
295,470

 
273,630

Refinery utilization (5)
 
100.8
%
 
101.3
%
 
93.6
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average per produced barrel (6)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
 
$
58.14

 
$
72.33

 
$
110.79

Cost of products (7)
 
50.17

 
56.88

 
98.39

Refinery gross margin (8)
 
7.97

 
15.45

 
12.40

Refinery operating expenses (9)
 
4.69

 
4.95

 
5.73

Net operating margin (8)
 
$
3.28

 
$
10.50

 
$
6.67

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Refinery operating expenses per throughput barrel (10)
 
$
4.36

 
$
4.61

 
$
5.52


 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Mid-Continent Region (El Dorado and Tulsa Refineries)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Feedstocks:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sweet crude oil
 
58
%
 
59
%
 
71
%
Sour crude oil
 
18
%
 
21
%
 
11
%
Heavy sour crude oil
 
17
%
 
15
%
 
14
%
Other feedstocks and blends
 
7
%
 
5
%
 
4
%
Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%

Footnote references are provided under our Consolidated Refinery Operating Data table on page 7.

The El Dorado Refinery is located on 1,100 acres south of El Dorado, Kansas and is a fully integrated refinery. The principal processing units at the El Dorado Refinery consist of crude and vacuum distillation; hydrodesulfurization of naphtha, kerosene, diesel, and gas oil streams; isomerization; catalytic reforming; aromatics recovery; catalytic cracking; alkylation; delayed coking; hydrogen production; and sulfur recovery. Refining operations began at the site in 1917 and the operating units now present include both newly constructed units and older units that have been upgraded over the years.

The Tulsa West facility is located on a 750-acre site in Tulsa, Oklahoma situated along the Arkansas River. The principal processing units at the Tulsa West facility consist of crude and vacuum distillation (with light ends recovery), naphtha hydrodesulfurization, propane de-asphalting, lubes extraction, MEK dewaxing, delayed coker and butane splitter units. Most of the operating units at the facility currently in service were built in the late 1950s and early 1960s. The refinery was reconfigured to emphasize specialty lubricant production in the early 1990s.

The Tulsa East facility is located on a 466-acre site also in Tulsa, Oklahoma situated along the Arkansas River. The principal process units at the Tulsa East facility consist of crude and vacuum distillation, naphtha hydrodesulfurization, FCC, isomerization, catalytic reforming, alkylation, scanfiner, diesel hydrodesulfurization and sulfur units.

Markets and Competition
The primary markets for the El Dorado Refinery's refined products are Colorado and the Plains States, which include the Kansas City metropolitan area. The gasoline, diesel and jet fuel produced by the El Dorado Refinery are primarily shipped via pipeline to terminals for distribution by truck or rail. We ship product via the NuStar Pipeline Operating Partnership L.P. Pipeline to the northern Plains States, via the Magellan Pipeline Company, L.P. (“Magellan”) mountain pipeline to Denver, Colorado, and on the Magellan mid-continent pipeline to the Plains States. Additionally, HEP's on-site truck and rail racks facilitate access to local refined product markets.


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The El Dorado Refinery faces competition from other Plains States and Mid-Continent refiners, but the principal competitors for the El Dorado Refinery are Gulf Coast refiners. Our Gulf Coast competitors typically have lower production costs due to greater economies of scale; however, they incur higher refined product transportation costs, which allows the El Dorado Refinery to compete effectively in the Plains States and Rocky Mountain region with Gulf Coast refineries.

The Tulsa Refineries serve the Mid-Continent region of the United States. Distillates and gasolines are primarily delivered from the Tulsa Refineries to market via pipelines owned and operated by Magellan. These pipelines connect the refinery to distribution channels throughout Colorado, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska and Arkansas. Additionally, HEP's on-site truck and rail racks facilitate access to local refined product markets.

We have an offtake agreement through November 2019 with an affiliate of Sinclair whereby Sinclair purchases 45,000 to 50,000 BPD of gasoline and distillate products at market prices from us to supply its branded and unbranded marketing network throughout the Midwest. Upon expiration, the offtake agreement can be renewed by Sinclair for an additional five-year term. For the year ended December 31, 2016 , sales to Sinclair represented approximately 26% of the Tulsa Refineries' total sales and 9% of our total consolidated sales.

The Tulsa Refineries' principal customers for conventional gasoline include Sinclair, other refiners, convenience store chains, independent marketers and retailers. Sinclair, truck stop operators and railroads are the primary diesel customers. Jet fuel is sold primarily for commercial use. The refinery's asphalt and roofing flux products are sold via truck or railcar directly from the refineries or to customers throughout the Mid-Continent region primarily to paving contractors and manufacturers of roofing products.

For the year ended December 31, 2016 , sales to Shell Oil represented approximately 10% of our Mid-Continent refineries' total sales and 10% of our total consolidated sales. We have a sales agreement with an affiliate of Shell Oil under which Shell Oil purchases gasoline and diesel production of the El Dorado Refinery and Tulsa Refineries at market prices through October 2018 primarily to support its branded marketing network.

Our Tulsa West facility also produces specialty lubricant products sold in both commercial and specialty markets throughout North America and to customers with operations in Central America and South America. The specialty lubricant products are high-value products that provide a significantly higher margin contribution to the refinery. Base oil customers include blender-compounders who prepare the various finished lubricant and grease products sold to end users. Agricultural products are formulated as supplemental carriers for herbicides and as Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”) registered pesticide oils, are sold to product formulators. Process oil customers include rubber and chemical industry customers. Specialty waxes are sold primarily to packaging customers as coating material for paper and cardboard, and to non-packaging customers in the construction materials, adhesive and candle-making markets. Our production represents approximately 5% of paraffinic oil capacity and 14% of wax production capacity in the United States market and is one of four refineries of specialty aromatic oils in North America.

Principal Products
Set forth below is information regarding the principal products produced at our El Dorado and Tulsa Refineries:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Mid-Continent Region (El Dorado and Tulsa Refineries)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales of produced refined products:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gasolines
 
50
%
 
50
%
 
47
%
Diesel fuels
 
33
%
 
33
%
 
33
%
Jet fuels
 
7
%
 
7
%
 
7
%
Fuel oil
 
1
%
 
1
%
 
1
%
Asphalt
 
2
%
 
2
%
 
3
%
Lubricants
 
5
%
 
4
%
 
4
%
LPG and other
 
2
%
 
3
%
 
5
%
Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%


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Table of Content

Crude Oil and Feedstock Supplies
Both of our Mid-Continent Refineries are connected via pipeline to Cushing, Oklahoma, a significant crude oil pipeline trading and storage hub. The El Dorado Refinery and the Tulsa Refineries are located approximately 125 miles and 50 miles, respectively, from Cushing, Oklahoma. Local pipelines provide direct access to regional Oklahoma crude production as well as access to United States onshore and Canadian crudes. The proximity of the refineries to the Cushing pipeline and storage hub provides the flexibility to optimize their crude slate with a wide variety of crude oil supply options. Additionally, we have transportation service agreements to transport Canadian crude oil on the Spearhead and Keystone Pipelines, enabling us to transport Canadian crude oil to Cushing for subsequent shipment to either of our Mid-Continent Refineries.

We also purchase isobutane, natural gasoline, butane and other feedstocks for processing at our Mid-Continent Refineries. The El Dorado Refinery is connected to Conway, Kansas, a major gas liquids trading and storage hub, via the Oneok Pipeline. From time to time, other feedstocks such gas oil, naphtha and light cycle oil are purchased from other refiners for use at our refineries.


Southwest Region (Navajo Refinery)

Facilities
The Navajo Refinery has a crude oil processing capacity of 100,000 barrels per stream day and has the ability to process sour crude oils into high-value light products such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. For 2016 , gasoline and diesel fuel (excluding volumes purchased for resale) represented 54% and 40% , respectively, of our Southwest sales volumes.

The following table sets forth information about our Southwest region operations, including non-GAAP performance measures.
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Southwest Region (Navajo Refinery)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crude charge (BPD) (1)
 
98,090

 
100,450

 
98,120

Refinery throughput (BPD) (2)
 
107,690

 
111,840

 
110,250

Refinery production (BPD) (3)
 
106,460

 
110,210

 
107,520

Sales of produced refined products (BPD)
 
108,280

 
111,580

 
106,870

Sales of refined products (BPD) (4)
 
110,740

 
119,560

 
115,620

Refinery utilization (5)
 
98.1
%
 
100.5
%
 
98.1
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average per produced barrel (6)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
 
$
57.87

 
$
69.76

 
$
110.54

Cost of products (7)
 
48.68

 
53.57

 
94.58

Refinery gross margin (8)
 
9.19

 
16.19

 
15.96

Refinery operating expenses (9)
 
4.72

 
4.92

 
5.43

Net operating margin (8)
 
$
4.47

 
$
11.27

 
$
10.53

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Refinery operating expenses per throughput barrel (10)
 
$
4.75

 
$
4.91

 
$
5.26

Feedstocks:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sweet crude oil
 
28
%
 
36
%
 
13
%
Sour crude oil
 
63
%
 
54
%
 
74
%
Heavy sour crude oil
 
%
 
%
 
2
%
Other feedstocks and blends
 
9
%
 
10
%
 
11
%
Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%

Footnote references are provided under our Consolidated Refinery Operating Data table on page 7.

The Navajo Refinery's Artesia, New Mexico facility is located on a 561-acre site and is a fully integrated refinery with crude distillation, vacuum distillation, FCC, ROSE (solvent deasphalter), HF alkylation, catalytic reforming, hydrodesulfurization, mild hydrocracking, isomerization, sulfur recovery and product blending units. The operating units at the Artesia facility include newly constructed units, older units that have been relocated from other facilities and upgraded and re-erected in Artesia, and units that have been operating as part of the Artesia facility (with periodic major maintenance) for many years, in some very limited cases since before 1970.


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Table of Content

The Artesia facility is operated in conjunction with a refining facility located in Lovington, New Mexico, approximately 65 miles east of Artesia. The principal equipment at the Lovington facility consists of a crude distillation unit and associated vacuum distillation units that were constructed after 1970. The Lovington facility processes crude oil into intermediate products that are transported to Artesia by means of three intermediate pipelines owned by HEP. These products are then upgraded into finished products at the Artesia facility. The combined crude oil capacity of the Navajo Refinery facilities is 100,000 BPSD and it typically processes or blends an additional 10,000 BPSD of natural gasoline, butane, gas oil and naphtha.

Markets and Competition
The Navajo Refinery primarily serves the southwestern United States market, including the metropolitan areas of El Paso, Texas; Albuquerque, Moriarty and Bloomfield, New Mexico; Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona; and portions of northern Mexico. Our products are shipped through HEP's pipelines from Artesia, New Mexico to El Paso, Texas and from El Paso to Albuquerque and to Mexico via products pipeline systems owned by Magellan and from El Paso to Tucson and Phoenix via a products pipeline system owned by Kinder Morgan's subsidiary, SFPP, L.P. (“SFPP”). In addition, petroleum products from the Navajo Refinery are transported to markets in northwest New Mexico, to Moriarty, New Mexico, near Albuquerque, via HEP's pipelines running from Artesia to San Juan County, New Mexico, and to Bloomfield, New Mexico. We have refined product storage through our pipelines and terminals agreement with HEP at terminals in El Paso, Texas; Tucson, Arizona; and Artesia and Moriarty, New Mexico.

El Paso Market
The El Paso market for refined products is currently supplied by a number of area and Gulf Coast refiners and pipelines. Area refiners include Navajo, WRB Refining, LLC (“WRB”) (a joint venture between Phillips 66 and Cenovus Energy), Valero, Alon USA, Inc. (“Alon”) and Western Refining. Pipelines serving this market are owned by Magellan, NuStar Energy L.P. and HEP. Refined products from the Gulf Coast are transported via Magellan pipelines.

Arizona Market
The Arizona market for refined products is currently supplied by a number of refiners via pipelines and trucks. Refiners include companies located in west Texas, eastern New Mexico, northern New Mexico, the Gulf Coast and the West Coast. Magellan's pipeline systems deliver refined products from the Texas Gulf Coast to El Paso and, through interconnections with third-party common carrier pipelines, into the Arizona market.

New Mexico Markets
The Artesia, Albuquerque, Moriarty and Bloomfield markets are supplied by a number of refiners via pipelines and trucks. Refiners include Navajo, Valero, Western Refining, Alon and WRB.

We use a common carrier pipeline out of El Paso to serve the Albuquerque market. In addition, HEP leases from Mid-America Pipeline Company, L.L.C., a pipeline between White Lakes, New Mexico and the Albuquerque vicinity and Bloomfield, New Mexico. The lease agreement currently runs through 2026, and HEP has options to renew for one additional ten-year period. HEP owns and operates a 12-inch pipeline from the Navajo Refinery to the leased pipeline as well as terminalling facilities in Moriarty, which is 40 miles east of Albuquerque. This facility permits us to ship light products to the Albuquerque and Santa Fe, New Mexico areas. In addition, we serve southern Colorado and northern Arizona primarily out of a terminal in Bloomfield, New Mexico, which is owned by Western Refining.

Principal Products
Set forth below is information regarding the principal products produced at our Navajo Refinery:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Southwest Region (Navajo Refinery)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales of produced refined products:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gasolines
 
54
%
 
55
%
 
54
%
Diesel fuels
 
40
%
 
39
%
 
38
%
Fuel oil
 
3
%
 
2
%
 
4
%
Asphalt
 
1
%
 
1
%
 
1
%
LPG and other
 
2
%
 
3
%
 
3
%
Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%


12

Table of Content

Crude Oil and Feedstock Supplies
The Navajo Refinery is situated near the Permian Basin, an area that has historically, and continues to have, abundant supplies of crude oil available both for regional users and for export to other areas. We purchase crude oil from independent producers in southeastern New Mexico and west Texas as well as from major oil companies. The crude oil is gathered through HEP's pipelines and through third-party tank trucks and crude oil pipeline systems for delivery to the Navajo Refinery.

We also purchase volumes of isobutane, natural gasoline and other feedstocks to supply the Navajo Refinery from sources in Texas and the Mid-Continent area that are delivered to our region on a common carrier pipeline owned by Enterprise Products, L.P. Ultimately all volumes of these products are shipped to the Artesia refining facilities on HEP's intermediate pipelines running from Lovington to Artesia. From time to time, we purchase gas oil, naphtha and light cycle oil from other refiners for use as feedstock.


Rocky Mountain Region (Cheyenne and Woods Cross Refineries)

Facilities
The Cheyenne and the Woods Cross Refineries have crude oil processing capacities of 52,000 and 45,000 barrels per stream day, respectively. The Cheyenne Refinery processes heavy Canadian crudes as well as local sweet crudes such as that produced from the Bakken shale and similar resources. The Woods Cross Refinery processes regional sweet and black wax crude as well as Canadian sour crude oils into high-value light products. For 2016 , gasoline and diesel fuel (excluding volumes purchased for resale) represented 60% and 33% , respectively, of our Rocky Mountain sales volumes.

The following table sets forth information about our Rocky Mountain region operations, including non-GAAP performance measures.
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Rocky Mountain Region (Cheyenne and Woods Cross Refineries)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crude charge (BPD) (1)
 
63,650

 
68,770

 
64,820

Refinery throughput (BPD) (2)
 
68,870

 
74,480

 
71,130

Refinery production (BPD) (3)
 
65,810

 
70,180

 
68,140

Sales of produced refined products (BPD)
 
65,940

 
68,000

 
68,520

Sales of refined products (BPD) (4)
 
69,160

 
73,320

 
72,390

Refinery utilization (5)
 
65.6
%
 
82.9
%
 
78.1
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average per produced barrel (6)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
 
$
57.80

 
$
70.05

 
$
107.51

Cost of products (7)
 
49.13

 
51.80

 
90.95

Refinery gross margin (8)
 
8.67

 
18.25

 
16.56

Refinery operating expenses (9)
 
10.45

 
9.89

 
10.20

Net operating margin (8)
 
$
(1.78
)
 
$
8.36

 
$
6.36

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Refinery operating expenses per throughput barrel (10)
 
$
10.01

 
$
9.03

 
$
9.83

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Feedstocks:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sweet crude oil
 
39
%
 
42
%
 
44
%
Sour crude oil
 
%
 
%
 
2
%
Heavy sour crude oil
 
35
%
 
37
%
 
30
%
Black wax crude oil
 
18
%
 
13
%
 
15
%
Other feedstocks and blends
 
8
%
 
8
%
 
9
%
Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%

Footnote references are provided under our Consolidated Refinery Operating Data table on page 7.

The Cheyenne Refinery facility is located on a 255-acre site and is a fully integrated refinery with crude distillation, vacuum distillation, coking, FCC, HF alkylation, catalytic reforming, hydrodesulfurization of naphtha and distillates, butane isomerization, hydrogen production, sulfur recovery and product blending units. The operating units at the Cheyenne Refinery include both newly constructed units and older units that have been upgraded over the years.


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Table of Content

The Woods Cross Refinery facility is located on a 200-acre site and is a fully integrated refinery with crude distillation, solvent deasphalter, FCC, HF alkylation, catalytic reforming, hydrodesulfurization, isomerization, sulfur recovery and product blending units. The operating units at the Woods Cross Refinery include newly constructed units, older units that have been relocated from other facilities, upgraded and re-erected in Woods Cross, and units that have been operating as part of the Woods Cross facility (with periodic major maintenance) for many years, in some very limited cases since before 1950. The facility typically processes or blends an additional 2,000 BPSD of natural gasoline, butane and gas oil over its 45,000 BPSD capacity.

We have recently curtailed production at the Woods Cross refinery due to insufficient crude supply provided by the Plains Rocky Mountain Pipeline. We are unable to predict the duration of the supply disruption at this time, but are considering alternative solutions and working with Plains and others to rectify the situation.  

We own and operate 4 miles of hydrogen pipeline that connects the Woods Cross Refinery to a hydrogen plant located on the property of Chevron's Salt Lake City Refinery. Additionally, HEP owns and operates 12 miles of crude oil and refined products pipelines that allows us to connect our Woods Cross Refinery to common carrier pipeline systems.

We have completed construction on our existing Woods Cross expansion project, increasing crude processing capacity to 45,000 BPSD, and providing greater crude slate flexibility, which we believe will increase capacity utilization and improve overall economic returns during periods when wax crudes are in short supply. The project also included construction of new refining facilities and a new rail loading rack for intermediates and finished products associated with refining waxy crude oil.

On November 18, 2013, the Utah Division of Air Quality issued a revised air quality permit (the “Approval Order”) authorizing the expansion. On December 18, 2013, two local environmental groups filed an administrative appeal challenging the issuance of the Approval Order and seeking a stay of the Approval Order. Following an extended appeal process, the Executive Director of the Utah Department of Environmental Quality issued a final order in favor of Woods Cross on all claims on March 31, 2015, and dismissed the project opponents’ arguments with prejudice. On April 27, 2015, the opponents filed a petition for review and notice of appeal with the Utah Court of Appeals challenging the agency’s decision to uphold the permit and dismiss the project opponents’ arguments. On August 4, 2016, the Utah Court of Appeals transferred the case to the Utah Supreme Court. The Utah Supreme Court established a supplemental briefing schedule, which ran through October 2016. Oral argument took place on December 14, 2016 and focused primarily on alleged procedural defects in the Petitioner’s appeal. The Court took the matter under advisement and will issue a written decision. Our continued use of the expansion project facilities is subject to the Woods Cross Refinery successfully defending the Approval Order on appeal at the Utah Court of Appeals.

Markets and Competition
The Cheyenne Refinery primarily markets its products in eastern Colorado, including metropolitan Denver, eastern Wyoming and western Nebraska. Because of the location of the Cheyenne Refinery, we are able to sell a significant portion of its diesel directly from the truck rack at the refinery, therefore, eliminating transportation costs. The Cheyenne Refinery ships refined products via the Magellan pipeline serving Denver and Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Denver Market
The most competitive market for the Cheyenne Refinery is the Denver metropolitan area. Three other refineries supply the Denver market: Wyoming refineries near Rawlins and in Casper owned by Sinclair and a refinery in Denver owned by Suncor. Five product pipelines also supply Denver, including three from outside the region.

Utah Market
The Woods Cross Refinery's primary market is Utah, which is currently supplied by a number of local refiners and the Pioneer Pipeline. In addition to our Woods Cross Refinery, local area refiners include Chevron, Tesoro, Big West and Silver Eagle. Other refiners that ship into the Woods Cross market via the Pioneer Pipeline include Sinclair, ExxonMobil, CHS and Phillips 66. We estimate the four local refineries that compete with our Woods Cross Refinery have a combined capacity to process approximately 165,000 BPD of crude oil. The five Utah refineries collectively supply an estimated 70% of the gasoline and distillate products consumed in the states of Utah and Idaho, with the remainder imported from refineries in Wyoming and Montana via the Pioneer Pipeline owned jointly by Sinclair and Phillips 66. Approximately 40% - 45% of the gasoline and diesel fuel produced by our Woods Cross Refinery is sold through a network of Phillips 66 branded marketers under a long-term supply agreement.


14

Table of Content

Idaho, Wyoming, Eastern Washington and Nevada Markets
We supply a small percentage of the refined products consumed in the combined Idaho, Wyoming, eastern Washington and Nevada markets. Our Woods Cross Refinery ships refined products over a common carrier pipeline system owned by Tesoro Logistics Northwest Pipelines LLC (“Tesoro Logistics”) to numerous terminals, including HEP's terminal at Spokane, Washington and to terminals at Pocatello and Boise, Idaho and Pasco, Washington that are owned by Tesoro Logistics. We sell to branded and unbranded customers in these markets. In 2012, we began shipping refined products to Cedar City, Utah and Las Vegas, Nevada via the UNEV Pipeline. The majority of the Las Vegas, Nevada market for refined products is supplied by various West Coast refiners and suppliers via Kinder Morgan's CalNev common carrier pipeline system.

Principal Products
Set forth below is information regarding the principal products produced at our Cheyenne and Woods Cross Refineries:
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Rocky Mountain Region (Cheyenne and Woods Cross Refineries)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales of produced refined products:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gasolines
 
60
%
 
57
%
 
56
%
Diesel fuels
 
33
%
 
36
%
 
33
%
Fuel oil
 
2
%
 
3
%
 
1
%
Asphalt
 
3
%
 
2
%
 
5
%
LPG and other
 
2
%
 
2
%
 
5
%
Total
 
100
%
 
100
%
 
100
%

Crude Oil and Feedstock Supplies
Crude oil is transported to the Cheyenne Refinery from suppliers in Canada, Colorado, Nebraska, North Dakota and Montana via common carrier pipelines owned by Spectra, Plains and Suncor Energy, as well as by truck. The Woods Cross Refinery currently obtains crude oil from suppliers in Canada, Wyoming, Utah and Colorado as delivered via common carrier pipelines that originate in Canada, Wyoming and Colorado. We also receive crude oil via the SLC Pipeline, a joint venture common carrier pipeline in which HEP owns a 25% interest. Supplies of black wax crude oil are shipped via truck.


HollyFrontier Asphalt Company

We manufacture commodity and modified asphalt products at our manufacturing facilities located in Glendale, Arizona; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Artesia, New Mexico and Catoosa, Oklahoma. Our Albuquerque and Artesia facilities manufacture modified hot asphalt products and commodity emulsions from base asphalt materials provided by our refineries and third-party suppliers. Our Glendale facility manufactures modified hot asphalt products from base asphalt materials provided by our refineries and third-party suppliers. Our Catoosa facility manufactures specialty modified asphalt and commodity asphalt products. We market these asphalt products in Arizona, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Texas and northern Mexico. Our products are shipped via third-party trucking companies to commercial customers that provide asphalt based materials for commercial and government projects.


HOLLY ENERGY PARTNERS, L.P.

HEP is a Delaware limited partnership that trades on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “HEP.” HEP owns and operates logistic assets consisting of petroleum product and crude oil pipelines, terminals, tankage, loading rack facilities and refinery processing units that principally support our refining and marketing operations in the Mid-Continent, Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions of the United States and Alon's refinery in Big Spring, Texas. Additionally, HEP owns a 75% interest in UNEV Pipeline, LLC (“UNEV”), the owner of a pipeline running from Woods Cross, Utah to Las Vegas, Nevada (the “UNEV Pipeline”) and associated product terminals; a 50% interest in Frontier Aspen LLC, the owner of a pipeline running from Wyoming to Frontier Station, Utah (the “Frontier Pipeline”); a 50% interest in Osage Pipe Line Company, LLC, the owner of a pipeline running from Cushing, Oklahoma to El Dorado, Kansas (the “Osage Pipeline”); a 50% interest in Cheyenne Pipeline, LLC, the owner of a pipeline running from Fort Laramie, Wyoming to Cheyenne, Wyoming (the “Cheyenne Pipeline”); and a 25% interest in SLC Pipeline, LLC, the owner of a pipeline (the “SLC Pipeline”) that serves refineries in the Salt Lake City, Utah area.


15


HEP generates revenues by charging tariffs for transporting petroleum products and crude oil through its pipelines, by leasing certain pipeline capacity to Alon, by charging fees for terminalling and storing refined products and other hydrocarbons and providing other services at its storage tanks, terminals and refinery processing units. HEP does not take ownership of products that it transports, terminals, stores or refines; therefore, it is not directly exposed to changes in commodity prices.

HEP's recent acquisitions (2012 through present) are summarized below:

Woods Cross Assets
On October 3, 2016, HEP acquired from us all the membership interests of Woods Cross Operating LLC, which owns the crude unit, FCCU and polymerization unit of the first phase of our Woods Cross Refinery expansion project that was completed in the second quarter of 2016, for cash consideration of approximately $278.0 million. In connection with this transaction, we entered into 15-year tolling agreements containing minimum quarterly throughput commitments that provide minimum annualized payments to HEP of $56.7 million.

Cheyenne Pipeline
On June 3, 2016, HEP acquired a 50% interest in Cheyenne Pipeline LLC, owner of the Cheyenne Pipeline, in exchange for a contribution of $42.6 million in cash to Cheyenne Pipeline LLC. Cheyenne Pipeline will continue to be operated by an affiliate of Plains All American Pipeline, L.P. (“Plains”), which owns the remaining 50% interest. The 87-mile crude oil pipeline runs from Fort Laramie, Wyoming to Cheyenne, Wyoming and has an 80,000 BPD capacity.

Tulsa Tanks
On March 31, 2016, HEP acquired crude oil tanks located at our Tulsa Refineries from Plains for $39.5 million. Previously in 2009, we sold these tanks to Plains and leased them back, and due to our continuing interest in the tanks, we accounted for the transaction as a financing arrangement. Accordingly, the tanks remained on our balance sheet and were depreciated for accounting purposes, and the proceeds received from Plains were recorded as a financing obligation and presented as a component of outstanding debt.

In accounting for HEP’s March 2016 purchase from Plains, the amount paid was recorded against our outstanding financing obligation balance of $30.8 million, with the excess $8.7 million payment resulting in a loss on early extinguishment of debt.

Magellan Asset Exchange
On February 22, 2016, we obtained a 50% membership interest in Osage Pipe Line Company, LLC (“Osage”) in exchange for a 20-year terminalling services agreement, whereby, a subsidiary of Magellan Midstream Partners (“Magellan Midstream”) will provide terminalling services for all of our products originating in Artesia, New Mexico that require terminalling in or through El Paso, Texas. Under the agreement, we will be charged tariffs based on the volumes of refined product processed. Osage is the owner of the Osage pipeline, a 135-mile pipeline that transports crude oil from Cushing, Oklahoma to our El Dorado Refinery in Kansas and also has a connection to the Jayhawk pipeline that services the CHS refinery in McPherson, Kansas. The Osage pipeline is the primary pipeline that supplies our El Dorado Refinery with crude oil.
Also on February 22, 2016, we contributed the 50% membership interest in Osage to HEP, and in exchange received HEP's El Paso terminal. Pursuant to this exchange, HEP agreed to build two connections to Magellan Midstream's El Paso terminal. In addition, HEP agreed to become operator of the Osage Pipeline.

El Dorado Asset Transaction
On November 1, 2015, HEP acquired from us newly constructed naphtha fractionation and hydrogen generation units at our El Dorado Refinery for cash consideration of $62.0 million. In connection with this transaction, we entered into 15-year tolling agreements containing minimum quarterly throughput commitments that provide minimum annualized payments to HEP of $15.1 million.

Frontier Pipeline Transaction
On August 31, 2015, HEP purchased a 50% interest in Frontier Aspen LLC (previously known as Frontier Pipeline Company), owner of the Frontier Pipeline, from an affiliate of Enbridge, Inc. for $55.0 million . Frontier Pipeline will continue to be operated by an affiliate of Plains, which owns the remaining 50% interest. The 289-mile crude oil pipeline runs from Casper, Wyoming to Frontier Station, Utah and has a 72,000 BPD capacity, and supplies Canadian and Rocky Mountain crudes to Salt Lake City area refiners through a connection to the SLC Pipeline.

Crude Tank Farm Asset Transaction
On March 6, 2015, HEP purchased an existing crude tank farm adjacent to our El Dorado Refinery from an unrelated third-party for $27.5 million in cash. We are the main customer of this crude tank farm.

16



UNEV Interest Transaction
On July 12, 2012, HEP acquired from us our 75% interest in UNEV. We received consideration consisting of $260.0 million in cash and 1.0 million HEP common units. UNEV owns the UNEV Pipeline, a 12-inch refined products pipeline running from Salt Lake City, Utah to Las Vegas, Nevada together with terminal facilities in Cedar City, Utah and North Las Vegas.


Transportation Agreements

Agreements with HEP
HEP serves our refineries under long-term pipeline, terminal and tankage throughput agreements and refinery processing tolling agreements expiring from 2019 through 2036. Under these agreements, we pay HEP fees to transport, store and process throughput volumes of refined products, crude oil and feedstocks on HEP's pipelines, terminals, tankage, loading rack facilities and refinery processing units that result in minimum annual payments to HEP, including UNEV (a consolidated subsidiary of HEP). Under these agreements, the agreed upon tariff rates are subject to annual tariff rate adjustments on July 1 at a rate based upon the percentage change in Producer Price Index (“PPI”) or Federal Energy Regulatory Commission index. As of December 31, 2016 , these agreements result in minimum annualized payments to HEP of $321.0 million .

Our transactions with HEP including the transactions discussed above and fees paid under our transportation agreements with HEP and UNEV are eliminated and have no impact on our consolidated financial statements.

Agreement with Alon
HEP has a 15-year pipelines and terminals agreement with Alon expiring in 2020, under which Alon has agreed to transport on HEP's pipelines and throughput through its terminals, volumes of refined products that results in a minimum level of annual revenue. The agreed upon tariff rates are increased or decreased annually at a rate equal to the percentage change in PPI, but will not decrease below the initial tariff rate. Also, HEP has a capacity lease agreement with Alon under which Alon leases space on HEP's Orla to El Paso pipeline for the shipment of up to 15,000 barrels of refined product per day. The terms under this agreement expire in 2018 through 2022.

As of December 31, 2016 , HEP's assets include:

Pipelines
approximately 810 miles of refined product pipelines, including 340 miles of leased pipelines, that transport gasoline, diesel and jet fuel principally from our Navajo Refinery in New Mexico to our customers in the metropolitan and rural areas of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah and northern Mexico;
approximately 510 miles of refined product pipelines that transport refined products from Alon's Big Spring refinery in Texas to its customers in Texas and Oklahoma;
two 65-mile pipelines that transport intermediate feedstocks and crude oil from our Navajo Refinery crude oil distillation and vacuum facilities in Lovington, New Mexico to our petroleum refinery facilities in Artesia, New Mexico;
one 65-mile intermediate pipeline that is used for the shipment of crude oil from the gathering systems in Barnsdall and Beeson, New Mexico to our Navajo Refinery.
approximately 940 miles of crude oil trunk, gathering and connection pipelines located in west Texas, New Mexico and Oklahoma that primarily deliver crude oil to our Navajo Refinery;
approximately 8 miles of refined product pipelines that support our Woods Cross Refinery located near Salt Lake City, Utah;
gasoline and diesel connecting pipelines that support our Tulsa East facility;
five intermediate product and gas pipelines between our Tulsa East and Tulsa West facilities;
crude receiving assets located at our Cheyenne Refinery;
a 75% interest in the UNEV Pipeline, a 427-mile, 12-inch refined products pipeline running from Woods Cross, Utah to Las Vegas, Nevada;
a 50% interest in the Osage Pipeline, a 135-mile pipeline that transports crude oil from Cushing, Oklahoma to our El Dorado Refinery and also has a connection to the Jayhawk pipeline that services the CHS refinery in McPherson, Kansas;
a 50% interest in the Cheyenne Pipeline, an 87-mile crude oil pipeline running from Fort Laramie, Wyoming to Cheyenne, Wyoming;
a 50% interest in the Frontier Pipeline, a 289-mile crude oil pipeline running from Casper, Wyoming to Frontier Station, Utah through a connection to the SLC Pipeline; and
a 25% interest in the SLC Pipeline, a 95-mile intrastate crude oil pipeline system that transports crude oil into the Salt Lake City, Utah area from the Utah terminus of the Frontier Pipeline, as well as crude oil flowing from Wyoming and Utah via Plains Rocky Mountain Pipeline.

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Refined Product Terminals and Refinery Tankage
three refined product terminals located in Moriarty and Bloomfield, New Mexico; and Tucson, Arizona, with an aggregate capacity of approximately 600,000 barrels, that are integrated with HEP's refined product pipeline system that serves our Navajo Refinery;
one refined product terminal located in Spokane, Washington, with a capacity of approximately 400,000 barrels, that serves third-party common carrier pipelines;
one refined product terminal near Mountain Home, Idaho, with a capacity of 120,000 barrels, that serves a nearby United States Air Force Base;
two refined product terminals, located in Wichita Falls and Abilene, Texas, and one tank farm in Orla, Texas with aggregate capacity of approximately 500,000 barrels, that are integrated with HEP's refined product pipelines that serve Alon's Big Spring, Texas refinery;
a refined product loading rack facility at each of our El Dorado, Tulsa, Navajo, Cheyenne and Woods Cross Refineries, heavy product / asphalt loading rack facilities at our Tulsa East facility, Navajo Refinery Lovington facility and Cheyenne Refinery, LPG loading rack facilities at our El Dorado Refinery, Tulsa West facility and Cheyenne Refinery, lube oil loading racks at our Tulsa West facility and crude oil Leased Automatic Custody Transfer units located at our Cheyenne Refinery;
on-site crude oil tankage at our Tulsa, El Dorado, Navajo, Cheyenne and Woods Cross Refineries having an aggregate storage capacity of approximately 1,350,000 barrels;
on-site refined and intermediate product tankage at our El Dorado, Tulsa and Cheyenne Refineries having an aggregate storage capacity of approximately 8,800,000 barrels;
eleven crude oil tanks adjacent to our El Dorado Refinery with a capacity of approximately 1,200,000 barrels that primarily serve our El Dorado Refinery;
a 75% interest in UNEV Pipeline's product terminals near Cedar City, Utah and Las Vegas, Nevada with an aggregate capacity of approximately 615,000 barrels; and
a 50% interest in Frontier Pipeline's tankage with an aggregate capacity of approximately 72,000 barrels.

Refinery Processing Units
a naphtha fractionation tower at our El Dorado Refinery, with a capacity of 50,000 BPD of desulfurized naphtha;
a hydrogen generation unit at our El Dorado Refinery, with a capacity of 6.1 million standard cubic feet per day of natural gas.
a crude unit, which is primarily an atmospheric distillation tower, a desalter and heat exchangers, at our Woods Cross Refinery, with a feedstock capacity of 15,000 BPD of crude oil;
An FCC unit at our Woods Cross Refinery, which converts crude oil to high-value refined products such as gasoline, diesel and liquefied petroleum gases, with a capacity of 8,000 BPD; and
a polymerization unit at our Woods Cross Refinery, that uses the output of the fluid cracking unit and converts them into gasoline blendstock, with a capacity of 2,500 BPD.


ADDITIONAL OPERATIONS AND OTHER INFORMATION

Corporate Offices
We lease approximately 60,000 square feet for our principal corporate offices in Dallas, Texas. The lease for our principal corporate offices expires in 2021. Functions performed in the Dallas office include overall corporate management, refinery and HEP management, planning and strategy, corporate finance, crude acquisition, logistics, contract administration, marketing, investor relations, governmental affairs, accounting, tax, treasury, information technology, legal and human resources support functions.

Employees and Labor Relations
As of December 31, 2016 , we had 2,676 employees, of which 908 are currently covered by collective bargaining agreements having various expiration dates between 2017 and 2020. We consider our employee relations to be good.

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Environmental Regulation
Refinery and pipeline operations are subject to numerous federal, state, provincial and local laws regulating the discharge of substances into the environment or otherwise relating to the protection of the environment. Permits or other authorizations are required under these laws for the operation of our refineries, pipelines and related facilities, which can result in the imposition of costly reporting and maintenance obligations, and these permits and authorizations are subject to revocation, modification and renewal. Over the years, there have been ongoing communications, including notices of violations, about environmental matters between us and governmental authorities, some of which have resulted or will result in changes to operating procedures and in capital expenditures. Compliance with applicable environmental laws, regulations and permits will continue to have an impact on our operations, the results of our operations, and our capital requirements.

Failure to comply with these laws and regulations may result in the assessment of sanctions, including administrative, civil and criminal penalties; the imposition of investigatory, remedial or corrective action obligations or the incurrence of capital expenditures; the occurrence of delays in the permitting, development or expansion of projects, and the issuance of injunctive relief limiting or prohibiting certain operations. The following is a description of the principal environmental laws applicable to our operations.

Clean Air Act - Our operations and many of the products we manufacture are subject to certain requirements of the Federal Clean Air Act (“CAA”) as well as related state and local laws and regulations. Certain CAA regulatory programs applicable to our refineries require capital expenditures for the installation of certain air pollution control devices. Additionally, the EPA has the authority under the CAA to modify the formulation of the refined transportation fuel products we manufacture in order to limit the emissions associated with their final use. Also, in October 2015, the EPA lowered the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (“NAAQS”) for ozone from 75 to 70 parts per billion for both the 8-hour primary and secondary standards. State implementation of the revised NAAQS could result in stricter permitting requirements, delay or prohibit our ability to obtain such permits, and result in increased expenditures for pollution control equipment, the costs of which could be significant. Also, in February 2016, a new EPA rule became effective that amends three refinery standards already in effect, imposing additional or, in some cases, new emission control requirements on subject refineries. The final rule requires, among other things, benzene monitoring at the refinery fence line and submittal of fence line monitoring data to the EPA on a quarterly basis; upgraded storage tank controls requirements, including new applicability thresholds; enhanced performance requirements for flares, continuous monitoring of flares and pressure release devices and analysis and remedy of flare release events; and compliance with emissions standards for delayed coking units. Refineries have up to three years from the effective date of the final rule to come into compliance with certain requirements of the rule, such as the performance requirements for flares, while other aspects of the rule require compliance to be achieved at a sooner date. In July 2016, the EPA issued a final rule providing refiners an additional 18 months to comply with a small subset of the rules related to air emissions resulting from startup, shutdown and maintenance events. More recently, in December 2016, the EPA granted petitions for reconsideration from industry and environmental organizations on aspects of the rule related to work practice standards for certain process units and equipment, as well as fence line monitoring requirements. To date, EPA has not published revised rules. These new rules, as well as subsequent rulemaking under the CAA or similar laws, or new agency interpretations of existing laws and regulations, may necessitate additional expenditures in future years and result in increased costs on our operations.

Fuel Quality Regulation - Also, we are subject to the EPA's Control of Hazardous Air Pollutants from Mobile Sources (“MSAT2”) regulations that impose reductions in the benzene content of our produced gasoline. Our refineries currently purchase a portion of their benzene credits to meet these requirements. If economically justified or otherwise determined to be beneficial, we could implement additional benzene reduction projects to eliminate the need to purchase benzene credits.

The Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (“EISA”) prescribe certain percentages of renewable fuels (e.g., ethanol and biofuels) that, where required, must be blended into our produced gasoline and diesel. The Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (“RFS2”) regulations, finalized by the EPA in 2010 to implement the EISA, requires that most refiners blend increasing amounts of biofuels with refined products through 2022. Because the EISA requires specified volumes of biofuels, if the demand for motor fuels decreases in future years, even higher percentages of biofuels may be required. Alternatively, credits called Renewable Identification Numbers (“RINs”) can be used instead of physically blending biofuels. The price of RINS has been subject to extreme volatility over the years and costs to purchase RINs can be significant.


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In November 2016, the EPA issued final volume requirements and associated percentage standards under the RFS2 for cellulosic biofuel, advanced biofuel, and total renewable fuel for 2017 and the biomass-based diesel requirement for 2018. The final rule increases the total renewable fuel volume by 6 percent from 2016 to 2017. While these volume mandates are generally lower than the statutory mandates, they represent a slight increase over the volumes initially proposed by the EPA for this three-year period and such volume mandates could be increased in the future. There continues to be a shortage of advanced biofuel production resulting in increased difficulties meeting RFS2 mandates. It is possible we could find ourselves unable to blend sufficient quantities of ethanol and biodiesel to meet our requirements and would, therefore, have to purchase an increasing number of RINs. It is not possible at this time to predict with certainty what those volumes or costs may be, but given the potential increase in volumes and the volatile price of RINs, increases in renewable volume requirements could have an adverse impact on our results of operations.

Finally, while there is no current regulatory standard that authenticates RINs that may be purchased on the open market from third parties, we believe that the RINs we purchase are from reputable sources, are valid and serve to demonstrate compliance with applicable RFS2 requirements. However, if any of the RINs purchased by us on the open market are subsequently found by EPA to be invalid, we could secure significant costs, penalties, or other liabilities in connection with replacing any invalid RINs.

Additional changes in fuel standards with respect to sulfur content of gasoline, called Tier 3 standards, to reduce vehicle emissions were finalized in 2014. These new requirements, other requirements of the CAA, and other presently existing or future environmental regulations may cause us to make substantial capital expenditures and purchase credits at significant cost to enable our refineries to produce products that meet applicable requirements.

Climate Change - In recent years, various legislative and regulatory measures to address climate change and greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions (including carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxides) have been discussed or implemented. They include proposed and enacted federal regulation and state actions to develop statewide, regional or nationwide programs designed to control and reduce GHG emissions from fixed sources, such as our refineries, as well as power plants, mobile transportation sources and fuels. Although it is not possible to predict the requirements of any GHG legislation that may be enacted, any laws or regulations that may be adopted to restrict or reduce GHG emissions will likely require us to incur increased operating and capital costs. In August 2015, the EPA finalized the “Clean Power Plan” requiring states to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal fired power plants that will likely result in a combination of plant closures, switching to renewable energy and natural gas, and demand reduction. In February 2016, the U.S. Supreme Court stayed implementation of the rule pending judicial challenges to the rule. At this time, we cannot predict the outcome of this litigation. In any event, this rule would not directly affect our operations, but it could result in increased power costs for our refineries in future years.

EPA rules require us to report GHG emissions from our refinery operations and consumer use of fuel products produced at our refineries on an annual basis. While the cost of compliance with the reporting rule is not material, data gathered under the rule may be used in the future to support additional regulation of GHG. Moreover, the EPA directly regulates GHG emissions from refineries and other major sources through the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (“PSD”) and Federal Operating Permit programs and may require Best Available Control Technology (“BACT”) for GHG emissions above a certain threshold if emissions of other pollutants would otherwise require PSD permitting. While this does not impose any limits or controls on GHG emissions from current operations, GHG emission increases from future projects or operational changes, such as capacity increases, may be impacted and required to meet emission limits or technological requirements pertaining to GHG emissions, such as BACT. Severe limitations on GHG emissions could also adversely affect demand for the gasoline that we produce. Finally, it should be noted that some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of GHGs in the Earth’s atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, floods and other climatic events; if any such effects were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on our operations.

Water Discharges - Our operations are also subject to the Federal Clean Water Act (“CWA”), the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act (“SDWA”) and comparable state and local requirements. The CWA, the SDWA and analogous laws prohibit any discharge into surface waters, ground waters, injection wells and publicly-owned treatment works except in conformance with legal authorization, such as pre-treatment permits and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (“NPDES”) permits, issued by federal, state and local governmental agencies. NPDES permits and analogous water discharge permits are valid for a maximum of five years and must be renewed. In September 2015, new EPA and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (“Corps”) rules defining the scope of the EPA’s and the Corps’ jurisdiction became effective. To the extent the rule expands the scope of the CWA’s jurisdiction, we could face increased costs and delays with respect to obtaining permits for dredge and fill activities in wetland areas. The rule has been challenged in court on the grounds that it unlawfully expands the reach of CWA programs, and implementation of the rule has been stayed pending resolution of the court challenge. Also, pursuant to the CWA and its implementing regulations, we may be required to obtain and maintain approvals or permits for the discharge of wastewater or storm water and are required to develop and implement spill prevention, control and countermeasure plans, also referred to as “SPCC plans,” in connection with on‑site storage of significant quantities of oil.


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Hazardous Substances and Wastes - We generate wastes that may be subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and comparable state and local requirements. The EPA and various state agencies have limited the approved methods of disposal for certain hazardous and non-hazardous wastes. The EPA is currently working on several rulemakings that could impact how our refineries manage various waste streams. While these rulemakings are still in development, it does not appear that these rules will significantly impact our refineries.

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”), also known as “Superfund,” imposes liability, without regard to fault or the legality of the original conduct, on certain classes of persons, including the current and past owner or operator of the disposal site or sites from which there is a release of a “hazardous substance,” as well as persons that disposed of or arranged for the disposal or treatment of the hazardous substances at the site or sites. Under CERCLA, such persons may be subject to strict joint and several liability for such costs as the cost of cleaning up the hazardous substances that have been released into the environment and for damages to natural resources. In the course of our historical operations, as well as in our current normal operations, we have generated waste, some of which falls within the statutory definition of a “hazardous substance” and some of which may have been disposed of at sites that may be subject to cleanup and cost recovery actions under CERCLA by a government entity or other third party. Similarly, locations now owned or operated by us, where third parties have disposed such hazardous substances in the past, may also be subject to cleanup and cost recovery actions under CERCLA. Under CERCLA, liable parties may seek contribution from other liable parties to share in the costs of cleanup. Some states have enacted laws similar to CERCLA which impose similar responsibilities and liabilities on responsible parties. It is also not uncommon for neighboring landowners and other third parties to file claims under state law for personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by hazardous substances or other pollutants released into the environment.

Oil Pollution Act - The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (“OPA”) and regulations thereunder impose a variety of requirements on “responsible parties” related to the prevention of oil spills and liability for damages resulting from such spills in United States waters. A “responsible party” includes the owner or operator of an onshore facility. OPA assigns liability to each responsible party for oil cleanup costs and a variety of public and private damages. While liability limits apply in some circumstances, a party cannot take advantage of liability limits if the spill was caused by gross negligence or willful misconduct or resulted from violation of a federal safety, construction or operating regulation. If the party fails to report a spill or to cooperate fully in the cleanup, liability limits likewise do not apply. Few defenses exist to the liability imposed by OPA. OPA imposes ongoing requirements on a responsible party, including the preparation of oil spill response plans and proof of financial responsibility to cover environmental cleanup and restoration costs that could be incurred in connection with an oil spill.

As is the case with all companies engaged in industries similar to ours, we face potential exposure to future claims and lawsuits involving environmental matters. These matters include soil and water contamination, air pollution, personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by substances that we manufactured, handled, used, released or disposed of. We currently have environmental remediation projects that relate to recovery, treatment and monitoring activities resulting from past releases of refined product and crude oil into the environment. As of December 31, 2016 , we had an accrual of $96.4 million related to such environmental liabilities.

We are and have been the subject of various state, federal and private proceedings and inquiries relating to compliance with environmental regulations and conditions, including those discussed above. Compliance with current and future environmental regulations is expected to require additional expenditures, including expenditures for investigation and remediation, which may be significant, at our refineries and at pipeline transportation facilities. To the extent that future expenditures for these purposes are material and can be reasonably determined, these costs are disclosed and accrued, if applicable.

Occupational Health and Safety - Our operations are also subject to various laws and regulations relating to occupational health and safety. We maintain a myriad of safety programs, safety-related maintenance programs, implement a regiment of training requirements and otherwise comply with a host of occupational safety and health standards and regulations as part of our ongoing efforts to ensure compliance with all applicable laws and regulations in this area. As part of our compliance efforts, we have established hazard communications programs pursuant to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (“OSHA”) hazard communication standard, and state right-to-know standards where applicable, which require the communication of information regarding chemical hazards in the workplace associated with chemicals manufactured or handled in our facilities. EPA regulations under Title III of the Federal Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act and related federal or comparable state statutes also require that information be maintained concerning hazardous materials used in or released from our operations and that this information be provided to state and local government authorities and citizens under certain circumstances. Our operations are also subject to OSHA Process Safety Management (“PSM”) regulations, which are designed to prevent or minimize the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable or explosive chemicals. The EPA has imposed substantially similar requirements under its Risk Management Plan (“RMP”) regulations. In January 2017, the EPA finalized revisions to the RMP, significantly expanding its requirements with respect to enhanced requirements for incident investigation and accident history reporting, emergency preparedness, and the performance process hazard analyses and third party compliance audits.

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Although, to date, OSHA has not proposed any revisions expanding or imposing new PSM requirements, in January 2017, OSHA announced changes to its National Emphasis Program and specifically identified oil refineries as facilities for increased inspections. The changes also instruct inspectors to use data gathered from EPA RMP inspections to identify refiners for additional PSM inspections. Compliance with applicable state and federal occupational health and safety laws and regulations, as well as environmental regulations, has required, and continues to require, substantial expenditures.

Occupational health and environmental legislation, regulations and regulatory programs change frequently. We cannot predict what additional occupational health and environmental legislation or regulations will be enacted or become effective in the future or how existing or future laws or regulations will be administered or interpreted with respect to our operations. Compliance with more stringent laws or regulations or adverse changes in the interpretation of existing laws or regulations by government agencies could have an adverse effect on our financial position and the results of our operations and could require substantial expenditures for the installation and operation of systems and equipment that we do not currently possess.

Insurance
Our operations are subject to hazards of operations, including fire, explosion and weather-related perils. We maintain various insurance coverages, including business interruption insurance, subject to certain deductibles. We are not fully insured against certain risks because such risks are not fully insurable, coverage is unavailable, or premium costs, in our judgment, do not justify such expenditures.

We have a risk management oversight committee consisting of members from our senior management. This committee oversees our risk enterprise program, monitors our risk environment and provides direction for activities to mitigate identified risks that may adversely affect the achievement of our goals.



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Item 1A.
Risk Factors

Investing in us involves a degree of risk, including the risks described below. Our operating results have been, and will continue to be, affected by a wide variety of risk factors, many of which are beyond our control, that could have adverse effects on profitability during any particular period. You should carefully consider the following risk factors together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including the financial statements and related notes, when deciding to invest in us. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently deem to be immaterial may also materially and adversely affect our business operations. If any of the following risks were to actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.

The headings provided in this Item 1A. are for convenience and reference purposes only and shall not affect or limit the extent or interpretation of the risk factors.

The availability and cost of renewable identification numbers and other required credits could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.

Pursuant to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the EPA promulgated the RFS2 regulations reflecting the increased volume of renewable fuels mandated to be blended into the nation's fuel supply. The regulations, in part, require refiners to add annually increasing amounts of “renewable fuels” to their petroleum products or purchase credits, known as RINs, in lieu of such blending. We currently purchase RINs for some fuel categories on the open market in order to comply with the quantity of renewable fuels we are required to blend under the RFS2 regulations. Recently, due in part to the nation's fuel supply approaching the “blend wall” (the 10% ethanol limit prescribed by most automobile warranties), the price of RINs has been extremely volatile with the price dramatically increasing in recognition of the decrease in RINs availability. While we cannot predict the future prices of RINs, the costs to obtain the necessary number of RINs could be material. If we are unable to pass the costs of compliance with the RFS2 regulations on to our customers, if sufficient RINs are unavailable for purchase, if we have to pay a significantly higher price for RINs or if we are otherwise unable to meet the RFS2 mandates, our financial condition and results of operations could be adversely affected.

In addition, the RFS2 regulations are highly complex and evolving, requiring us to periodically update our compliance systems. The RFS2 regulations require the EPA to determine and publish the applicable annual volume and percentage standards for each compliance year by November 30 for the forthcoming year, and such blending percentages could be higher or lower than amounts estimated and accrued for in our consolidated financial statements. The future cost of RINs is difficult to estimate until such time as the EPA finalizes the applicable standards for the forthcoming compliance year. Moreover, in addition to increased price volatility in the RIN market, there have been multiple instances of RINs fraud occurring in the marketplace over the past several years. The EPA has initiated several enforcement actions against refiners who purchase fraudulent RINs, resulting in substantial costs to the refiner. We cannot predict with certainty our exposure to increased RINs costs in the future, nor can we predict the extent by which costs associated with RFS2 regulations will impact our future results of operations.

The prices of crude oil and refined products materially affect our profitability, and are dependent upon many factors that are beyond our control, including general market demand and economic conditions, seasonal and weather-related factors, regional and grade differentials and governmental regulations and policies.

Among these factors is the demand for crude oil and refined products, which is largely driven by the conditions of local and worldwide economies as well as by weather patterns and the taxation of these products relative to other energy sources. Governmental regulations and policies, particularly in the areas of taxation, energy and the environment, also have a significant impact on our activities. Operating results can be affected by these industry factors, product and crude pipeline capacities, crude oil differentials (including regional and grade differentials), changes in transportation costs, accidents or interruptions in transportation, competition in the particular geographic areas that we serve, and factors that are specific to us, such as the success of particular marketing programs and the efficiency of our refinery operations. The demand for crude oil and refined products can also be reduced due to a local or national recession or other adverse economic condition that results in lower spending by businesses and consumers on gasoline and diesel fuel, higher gasoline prices due to higher crude oil prices, a shift by consumers to more fuel-efficient vehicles or alternative fuel vehicles (such as ethanol or wider adoption of gas/electric hybrid vehicles), or an increase in vehicle fuel economy, whether as a result of technological advances by manufacturers, legislation mandating or encouraging higher fuel economy or the use of alternative fuel.


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We do not produce crude oil and must purchase all our crude oil, the price of which fluctuates based upon worldwide and local market conditions. Our profitability depends largely on the spread between market prices for refined petroleum products and crude oil prices. This margin is continually changing and may fluctuate significantly from time to time. Crude oil and refined products are commodities whose price levels are determined by market forces beyond our control. For example, the reversal of certain existing pipelines or the construction of certain new pipelines transporting additional crude oil or refined products to markets that serve competing refineries could affect the market dynamic that has allowed us to take advantage of favorable pricing. Also, in December 2015, the U.S. Congress lifted the ban on the ability of producers to export domestic crude oil. This could potentially impact crack spreads and price differentials between domestic and foreign crude oils. A deterioration of crack spreads or price differentials between domestic and foreign crude oils could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Additionally, due to the seasonality of refined products markets and refinery maintenance schedules, results of operations for any particular quarter of a fiscal year are not necessarily indicative of results for the full year and can vary year to year in the event of unseasonably cool weather in the summer months and / or unseasonably warm weather in the winter months in the markets in which we sell our petroleum products. In general, prices for refined products are influenced by the price of crude oil. Although an increase or decrease in the price for crude oil may result in a similar increase or decrease in prices for refined products, there may be a time lag in the realization of the similar increase or decrease in prices for refined products. The effect of changes in crude oil prices on operating results, therefore, depends in part on how quickly refined product prices adjust to reflect these changes. A substantial or prolonged increase in crude oil prices without a corresponding increase in refined product prices, a substantial or prolonged decrease in refined product prices without a corresponding decrease in crude oil prices, or a substantial or prolonged decrease in demand for refined products could have a significant negative effect on our earnings and cash flow. Also, crude oil supply contracts are generally short-term contracts with market-responsive pricing provisions. We purchase our refinery feedstocks weeks before manufacturing and selling the refined products. Price level changes during the period between purchasing feedstocks and selling the manufactured refined products from these feedstocks could have a significant effect on our financial condition and results of operations. Also, our crude oil and refined products inventories are valued at the lower of cost or market under the last-in, first-out (“LIFO”) inventory valuation methodology. If the market value of our inventory were to decline to an amount less than our LIFO cost, we would record a write-down of inventory and a non-cash charge to cost of products sold even when there is no underlying economic impact at that point in time. For example, we recorded a non-cash decrease to cost of products sold in the amount of $291.9 million and an increase of $227.0 million for the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015 , respectively. Continued volatility in crude oil and refined products prices could result in additional lower of cost or market inventory charges in the future, or in reversals reducing cost of products sold in subsequent periods should prices recover.

A material decrease in the supply of crude oil or other raw materials available to our refineries could significantly reduce our production levels and negatively affect our operations.

To maintain or increase production levels at our refineries, we must continually contract for crude oil supplies from third parties. A material decrease in crude oil production from the fields that supply our refineries, as a result of depressed commodity prices, lack of drilling activity, natural production declines or otherwise, could result in a decline in the volume of crude oil available to our refineries. In addition, any prolonged disruption of a significant pipeline that is used in supplying crude oil to our refineries or the potential operation of a new, converted or expanded crude oil pipeline that transports crude oil to other markets could result in a decline in the volume of crude oil available to our refineries. Such an event could result in an overall decline in volumes of refined products processed at our refineries and therefore a corresponding reduction in our cash flow. In addition, the future growth of our operations will depend in part upon whether we can contract for additional supplies of crude oil at a greater rate than the rate of natural decline in our currently connected supplies. If we are unable to secure additional crude oil supplies of sufficient quality or crude pipeline expansion to our refineries, we will be unable to take full advantage of current and future expansion of our refineries' production capacities.

For certain raw materials and utilities used by our refineries, there are a limited number of suppliers and, in some cases, the supplies are specific to the particular geographic region in which a facility is located. It is also common in the refining industry for a facility to have a sole, dedicated source for its utilities, such as steam, electricity, water and gas. Having a sole or limited number of suppliers may limit our negotiating power, particularly in the case of rising raw material costs. Any new supply agreements we enter into may not have terms as favorable as those contained in our current supply agreements.

Additionally, there is growing concern over the reliability of water sources. The decreased availability or less favorable pricing for water as a result of population growth, drought or regulation could negatively impact our operations.

If our raw material, utility or water supplies were disrupted, our businesses may incur increased costs to procure alternative supplies or incur excessive downtime, which would have a direct negative impact on our operations.


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We may not be able to successfully execute our business strategies to grow our business. Further, if we are unable to complete capital projects at their expected costs or in a timely manner, if we are unsuccessful in integrating the operations of assets we acquire, or if the market conditions assumed in our project economics deteriorate, our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows could be materially and adversely affected.

One of the ways we may grow our business is through the construction of new refinery processing units (or the purchase and refurbishment of used units from another refinery) and the expansion of existing ones. Projects are generally initiated to increase the yields of higher-value products, increase the amount of lower cost crude oils that can be processed, increase refinery production capacity, meet new governmental requirements, or maintain the operations of our existing assets. Additionally, our growth strategy includes projects that permit access to new and/or more profitable markets. The construction process involves numerous regulatory, environmental, political, and legal uncertainties, most of which are not fully within our control, including:

denial or delay in issuing requisite regulatory approvals and/or obtaining or renewing permits, licenses, registrations and other authorizations;
societal and political pressures and other forms of opposition;
compliance with or liability under environmental regulations;
unplanned increases in the cost of construction materials or labor;
disruptions in transportation of modular components and/or construction materials;
severe adverse weather conditions, natural disasters, or other events (such as equipment malfunctions, explosions, fires, spills) affecting our facilities, or those of vendors and suppliers;
shortages of sufficiently skilled labor, or labor disagreements resulting in unplanned work stoppages;
market-related increases in a project's debt or equity financing costs; and/or
nonperformance or force majeure by, or disputes with, vendors, suppliers, contractors, or sub-contractors involved with a project.

If we are unable to complete capital projects at their expected costs or in a timely manner our financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. Delays in making required changes or upgrades to our facilities could subject us to fines or penalties as well as affect our ability to supply certain products we make. In addition, our revenues may not increase immediately upon the expenditure of funds on a particular project. For instance, if we build a new refinery processing unit, the construction will occur over an extended period of time and we will not receive any material increases in revenues until after completion of the project. Moreover, we may construct facilities to capture anticipated future growth in demand for refined products in a region in which such growth does not materialize. As a result, new capital investments may not achieve our expected investment return, which could adversely affect our financial condition or results of operations.

Our forecasted internal rates of return are also based upon our projections of future market fundamentals which are not within our control, including changes in general economic conditions, available alternative supply and customer demand.

An additional component of our growth strategy is to selectively acquire complementary assets or businesses for our refining operations in order to increase earnings and cash flow. Our ability to do so will be dependent upon a number of factors, including our ability to identify attractive acquisition candidates, consummate acquisitions on favorable terms, successfully integrate acquired assets and obtain financing to fund acquisitions and to support our growth, and other factors beyond our control. Risks associated with acquisitions include those relating to:

diversion of management time and attention from our existing business;
challenges in managing the increased scope, geographic diversity and complexity of operations and inefficiencies that may result therefrom;
difficulties in integrating the financial, technological and management standards, processes, procedures and controls of an acquired business with those of our existing operations;
liability for known or unknown environmental conditions or other contingent liabilities not covered by indemnification or insurance;
greater than anticipated expenditures required for compliance with environmental or other regulatory standards or for investments to improve operating results;
difficulties or delays in achieving anticipated operational improvements or benefits;
incurrence of additional indebtedness to finance acquisitions or capital expenditures relating to acquired assets; and
issuance of additional equity, which could result in further dilution of the ownership interest of existing stockholders.

Any acquisitions that we do consummate may have adverse effects on our business and operating results.


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The anticipated benefits of our PCLI acquisition may not be realized fully or at all or may take longer to realize than expected.

The PCLI acquisition will require management to devote significant attention and resources to integrating the PCLI business with our business, and involves the operation of businesses in other countries. Delays in this process could adversely affect our business, financial results, financial condition and stock price. Even if we are able to integrate our business operations successfully, there can be no assurance that this integration will result in the realization of the full benefits of synergies, cost savings, innovation and operational efficiencies that we currently expect from this integration or that these benefits will be achieved within the anticipated time frame.

We may incur significant costs to comply with new or changing environmental, energy, health and safety laws and regulations, and face potential exposure for environmental matters.

Our refinery and pipeline operations are subject to federal, state and local laws regulating, among other things, the generation, storage, handling, use, transportation and distribution of petroleum and hazardous substances by pipeline, truck, rail and barge, the emission and discharge of materials into the environment, waste management, and characteristics and composition of gasoline and diesel fuels, and other matters otherwise relating to the protection of the environment. In addition, as a result of our recent acquisition of PCLI and its subsidiaries, we have manufacturing and distribution operations in Canada that are subject to Canadian national and provincial environmental laws and regulations and similar laws in other foreign countries. Permits or other authorizations are required under these laws for the operation of our refineries, pipelines and related operations, and these permits and authorizations are subject to revocation, modification and renewal or may require operational changes, which may involve significant costs. Furthermore, a violation of permit conditions or other legal or regulatory requirements could result in substantial fines, criminal sanctions, permit revocations, injunctions, and/or refinery shutdowns. In addition, major modifications of our operations due to changes in the law could require changes to our existing permits or expensive upgrades to our existing pollution control equipment, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, or results of operations. For example, in October 2015, the EPA lowered the NAAQS for ozone from 75 to 70 parts per billion for both the 8-hour primary and secondary standards. State implementation of the revised NAAQS could result in stricter permitting requirements, delay or prohibit our ability to obtain such permits, and result in increased expenditures for pollution control equipment, the costs of which could be significant. Also, in February 2016, a new EPA rule became effective that amends three refinery standards already in effect, imposing additional or, in some cases, new emission control requirements on subject refineries. The final rule requires, among other things, benzene monitoring at the refinery fence line and submittal of fence line monitoring data to the EPA on a quarterly basis; upgraded storage tank controls requirements, including new applicability thresholds; enhanced performance requirements for flares, continuous monitoring of flares and pressure release devices and analysis and remedy of flare release events; and compliance with emissions standards for delayed coking units. Refineries have up to three years from the effective date of the final rule to come into compliance with certain requirements of the rule, such as the performance requirements for flares, while other aspects of the rule require compliance to be achieved at a sooner date. In July 2016, the EPA issued a finale rule providing refiners an additional 18 months to comply with a small subset of the rules related to air emissions resulting from startup, shutdown and maintenance events. More recently, in December 2016, the EPA granted petitions for reconsideration from industry and environmental organizations on aspects of the rule related to work practice standards for certain process units and equipment, as well as fence line monitoring requirements. To date, EPA has not published revised rules. These new rules, as well as subsequent rulemaking under the CAA or similar laws, or new agency interpretations of existing laws and regulations, may necessitate additional expenditures in future years and result in increased costs on our operations. Compliance with applicable environmental laws, regulations and permits will continue to have an impact on our operations, results of our operations and capital requirements.

As is the case with all companies engaged in industries similar to ours, we face potential exposure to future claims and lawsuits involving environmental matters. The matters include, but are not limited to, soil, groundwater and waterway contamination, air pollution, personal injury and property damage allegedly caused by substances which we manufactured, handled, used, released or disposed.

We are and have been the subject of various local, state, provincial, federal and private proceedings relating to environmental regulations, conditions and inquiries. Current and future environmental regulations are expected to require additional expenditures, including expenditures for investigation and remediation, which may be significant, at our facilities. To the extent that future expenditures for these purposes are material and can be reasonably determined, these costs are disclosed and accrued.

Our operations are also subject to various laws and regulations relating to occupational health and safety. We maintain safety, training and maintenance programs as part of our ongoing efforts to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations. Compliance with applicable health and safety laws and regulations has required and continues to require substantial expenditures. Failure to appropriately manage occupational health and safety risks associated with our business could also adversely impact our employees, communities, stakeholders, reputation and results of operations.


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The costs of environmental and safety regulations are already significant and compliance with more stringent laws or regulations or adverse changes in the interpretation of existing regulations by government agencies could have an adverse effect on the financial position and the results of our operations and could require substantial expenditures for the installation and operation of systems and equipment that we do not currently possess.

From time to time, new federal energy policy legislation is enacted by the U.S. Congress or the Government of Canada. For example, in December 2007, the U.S. Congress passed the Energy Independence and Security Act, which, among other provisions, mandates annually increasing levels for the use of renewable fuels such as ethanol, commencing in 2008 and escalating for 15 years, as well as increasing energy efficiency goals, including higher fuel economy standards for motor vehicles, among other steps. In Canada, fuel content legislation also exists at the federal and provincial level. These statutory mandates may have the impact over time of offsetting projected increases in the demand for refined petroleum products in certain markets, particularly gasoline. In the near term, the new renewable fuel standard presents ethanol production and logistics challenges for both the ethanol and refining industries and may require additional capital expenditures or expenses by us to accommodate increased ethanol use. Other legislative changes may similarly alter the expected demand and supply projections for refined petroleum products in ways that cannot be predicted.

For additional information on regulations and related liabilities or potential liabilities affecting our business, see “Regulation” under Items 1 and 2, “Business and Properties,” and Item 3, “Legal Proceedings.”

The adoption of climate change legislation or regulations could result in increased operating costs and reduced demand for the refined products we produce.

The EPA has determined that emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gas emissions, or “GHGs,” present an endangerment to public health and the environment because emissions of such gases are, according to the EPA, contributing to warming of the earth's atmosphere and other climatic changes. Based on these findings, the EPA has begun adopting and implementing regulations to restrict emissions of GHGs under existing provisions of the federal CAA. For example, the EPA adopted rules that require certain large stationary sources to obtain permits to authorize emissions of GHGs. The EPA has also adopted rules requiring the reporting of GHG emissions from specified large GHG emission sources in the United States, including petroleum refineries, on an annual basis. Both the EPA and Environment and Climate Change Canada have adopted regulations that limit GHG emissions from automobiles and light-duty trucks, which may result in a reduction in demand for the refined products that we produce.

In addition, the U.S. Congress has from time to time considered adopting legislation to reduce emissions of GHGs and almost one-half of the states have established cap and trade programs. These cap and trade programs generally work by requiring major sources of emissions, such as electric power plants, or major producers of fuels, such as refineries and gas processing plants, to acquire and on an annual basis surrender emission allowances. The number of allowances available for purchase is reduced over time in an effort to achieve the overall GHG emission reduction goal.

In Canada, the federal and provincial governments have also considered, and in some cases adopted, legislation to reduce GHG emissions. To date, two provinces (Quebec and Ontario) have also adopted cap and trade programs.

The adoption of legislation or regulatory programs to reduce emissions of GHGs could require us to incur increased operating costs, such as costs to purchase and operate emissions control systems, to acquire emissions allowances or comply with new regulatory or reporting requirements. Any such legislation or regulatory programs could also increase the cost of consuming, and thereby reduce demand for, the refined products that we produce. Consequently, legislation and regulatory programs to reduce emissions of GHGs could have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, some scientists have concluded that increasing concentrations of GHGs in the Earth's atmosphere may produce climate changes that have significant physical effects, such as increased frequency and severity of storms, droughts, floods and other climatic events. If any such events were to occur, they could have an adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations. 


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Our operations are subject to catastrophic losses, operational hazards and unforeseen interruptions for which we may not be adequately insured.

Our operations are subject to catastrophic losses, operational hazards and unforeseen interruptions such as natural disasters, adverse weather, accidents, maritime disasters (including those involving marine vessels/terminals), fires, explosions, hazardous materials releases, cyber-attacks, power failures, mechanical failures and other events beyond our control. These events could result in an injury, loss of life, property damage or destruction, as well as a curtailment or an interruption in our operations and may affect our ability to meet marketing commitments.

We may not be able to maintain or obtain insurance of the type and amount we desire at reasonable rates and exclusions from coverage may limit our ability to recover the amount of the full loss in all situations. As a result of market conditions, premiums and deductibles for certain of our insurance policies could increase. In some instances, certain insurance could become unavailable or available only for reduced amounts of coverage. We are not fully insured against all risks incident to our business and therefore, we self-insure certain risks. If any refinery were to experience an interruption in operations, earnings from the refinery could be materially adversely affected (to the extent not recoverable through insurance) because of lost production and repair costs.

The energy industry is highly capital intensive, and the entire or partial loss of individual facilities can result in significant costs to both industry companies, such as us, and their insurance carriers. In recent years, several large energy industry claims have resulted in significant increases in the level of premium costs and deductible periods for participants in the energy industry. As a result of large energy industry claims, insurance companies that have historically participated in underwriting energy-related facilities may discontinue that practice or demand significantly higher premiums or deductible periods to cover these facilities. If significant changes in the number or financial solvency of insurance underwriters for the energy industry occur, or if other adverse conditions over which we have no control prevail in the insurance market, we may be unable to obtain and maintain adequate insurance at reasonable cost. In addition, we cannot assure you that our insurers will renew our insurance coverage on acceptable terms, if at all, or that we will be able to arrange for adequate alternative coverage in the event of non-renewal. Further, our underwriters could have credit issues that affect their ability to pay claims. If a significant accident or event occurs that is self-insured or not fully insured, it could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

An impairment of our long-lived assets or goodwill could reduce our earnings or negatively impact our financial condition and results of operations.
An impairment of our long-lived assets or goodwill could reduce our earnings or negatively impact our results of operations and financial condition. We continually monitor our business, the business environment and the performance of our operations to determine if an event has occurred that indicates that a long-lived asset or goodwill may be impaired. If a triggering event occurs, which is a determination that involves judgment, we may be required to utilize cash flow projections to assess our ability to recover the carrying value based on the ability to generate future cash flows. We may also conduct impairment testing based on both the guideline public company and guideline transaction methods. Our long-lived assets and goodwill impairment analyses are sensitive to changes in key assumptions used in our analysis, estimates of future crack spreads, forecasted production levels, operating costs and capital expenditures. If the assumptions used in our analysis are not realized, it is possible a material impairment charge may need to be recorded in the future. We cannot accurately predict the amount and timing of any additional impairments of long-lived assets or goodwill in the future.

As market prices for refined products and market prices for crude oil continue to fluctuate, we will need to continue to evaluate the carrying value of our refinery reporting units. During the year ended December 31, 2016, we recorded goodwill and long-lived asset impairment charges of $309.3 million and $344.8 million, respectively, on the carrying value of our Cheyenne Refinery. Additionally, the fair value of our El Dorado reporting unit currently exceeds its carrying value by approximately 20%. A reasonable expectation exists that future deterioration in gross margins could result in an impairment of goodwill and the long-lived assets of the El Dorado reporting unit at some point in the future. Any additional impairment charges that we may take in the future could be material to our results of operations and financial condition.

Competition in the refining and marketing industry is intense, and an increase in competition in the markets in which we sell our products could adversely affect our earnings and profitability.

We compete with a broad range of refining and marketing companies, including certain multinational oil companies. Because of their geographic diversity, larger and more complex refineries, integrated operations and greater resources, some of our competitors may be better able to withstand volatile market conditions, to obtain crude oil in times of shortage and to bear the economic risks inherent in all areas of the refining industry.


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We are not engaged in petroleum exploration and production activities and do not produce any of the crude oil feedstocks used at our refineries. We do not have a retail business and therefore are dependent upon others for outlets for our refined products. Certain of our competitors, however, obtain a portion of their feedstocks from company-owned production and have retail outlets. Competitors that have their own production or extensive retail outlets, with brand-name recognition, are at times able to offset losses from refining operations with profits from producing or retailing operations, and may be better positioned to withstand periods of depressed refining margins or feedstock shortages.

In recent years there have been several refining and marketing consolidations or acquisitions between entities competing in our geographic market. These transactions could increase the future competitive pressures on us.

The markets in which we compete may be impacted by competitors' plans for expansion projects and refinery improvements that could increase the production of refined products in our areas of operation and significantly affect our profitability.

Also, the potential operation of new or expanded refined product transportation pipelines, or the conversion of existing pipelines into refined product transportation pipelines, could impact the supply of refined products to our existing markets and negatively affect our profitability.

In addition, we compete with other industries that provide alternative means to satisfy the energy and fuel requirements of our industrial, commercial and individual consumers. The more successful these alternatives become as a result of governmental regulations, technological advances, consumer demand, improved pricing or otherwise, the greater the impact on pricing and demand for our products and our profitability. There are presently significant governmental and consumer pressures to increase the use of alternative fuels in the United States.

A disruption to or proration of the refined product distribution systems we utilize could negatively impact our profitability.

We utilize various common carrier or other third party pipeline systems to deliver our products to market. The key systems utilized by the Cheyenne, El Dorado, Navajo, Woods Cross, and Tulsa Refineries are Rocky Mountain, NuStar Energy, SFPP and Plains, Chevron, and Magellan, respectively. All five refineries also utilize systems owned by HEP. If these key pipelines or their associated tanks and terminals become inoperative or decrease the capacity available to us, we may not be able to sell our product, or we may be required to hold our product in inventory or supply products to our customers through an alternative pipeline or by rail or additional tanker trucks from the refinery, all of which could increase our costs and result in a decline in profitability.

We may be subject to information technology system failures, network disruptions and breaches in data security.

Information technology system failures, network disruptions (whether intentional by a third party or due to natural disaster), breaches of network or data security, or disruption or failure of the network system used to monitor and control pipeline operations could disrupt our operations by impeding our processing of transactions, our ability to protect customer or company information and our financial reporting. Our computer systems, including our back-up systems, could be damaged or interrupted by power outages, computer and telecommunications failures, computer viruses, internal or external security breaches, events such as fires, earthquakes, floods, tornadoes and hurricanes, and/or errors by our employees. There can be no assurance that a system failure or data security breach will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.


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We may not be able to obtain funding on acceptable terms or at all because of volatility and uncertainty in the credit and capital markets. This may hinder or prevent us from meeting our future capital needs.

The domestic and global financial markets and economic conditions are disrupted and volatile from time to time due to a variety of factors, including low consumer confidence, high unemployment, geoeconomic and geopolitical issues, weak economic conditions and uncertainty in the financial services sector. In addition, the fixed-income markets have experienced periods of extreme volatility, which negatively impacted market liquidity conditions. Recently, the equity and debt markets for many energy industry companies have been adversely affected by low oil prices. As a result, the cost of raising money in the debt and equity capital markets has increased substantially at times while the availability of funds from these markets diminished significantly. In particular, as a result of concerns about the stability of financial markets generally and the solvency of lending counterparties specifically, the cost of obtaining money from the credit markets may increase as many lenders and institutional investors increase interest rates, enact tighter lending standards, refuse to refinance existing debt on similar terms or at all and reduce, or in some cases cease, to provide funding to borrowers. In addition, lending counterparties under any existing revolving credit facility and other debt instruments may be unwilling or unable to meet their funding obligations, or we may experience a decrease in our capacity to issue debt or obtain commercial credit or a deterioration in our credit profile, including a rating agency lowering or withdrawing of our credit ratings if, in its judgment, the circumstances warrant. Due to these factors, we cannot be certain that new debt or equity financing will be available on acceptable terms. If funding is not available when needed, or is available only on unfavorable terms, we may be unable to meet our obligations as they come due or we may be required to sell assets. Moreover, without adequate funding, we may be unable to execute our growth strategy, complete future acquisitions or construction projects, take advantage of other business opportunities or respond to competitive pressures, comply with regulatory requirements, or meet our short-term or long-term working capital requirements, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our revenues and results of operations. Failure to comply with regulatory requirements in a timely manner or meet our short-term or long-term working capital requirements could subject us to regulatory action.

We depend upon HEP for a substantial portion of the crude supply and distribution network that serve our refineries, and we own a significant equity interest in HEP.

We currently own a 37% interest in HEP, including the 2% general partner interest. HEP operates a system of crude oil and petroleum product pipelines; distribution terminals and refinery tankage in Arizona, Idaho, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah, Washington and Wyoming and refinery units in Kansas and Utah. HEP generates revenues by charging tariffs for transporting petroleum products and crude oil through its pipelines, leasing certain pipeline capacity to Alon, charging fees for terminalling refined products and other hydrocarbons and storing and providing other services at its terminals. HEP serves the Cheyenne, El Dorado, Navajo, Woods Cross and Tulsa Refineries under several long-term pipeline and terminal, tankage and throughput agreements expiring in 2019 through 2026, serves the El Dorado Refinery under long-term tolling agreements expiring in 2030 and serves the Woods Cross Refinery under long-term tolling agreements expiring in 2031. Furthermore, our financial statements include the consolidated results of HEP. HEP is subject to its own operating and regulatory risks, including, but not limited to:

its reliance on its significant customers, including us;
competition from other pipelines;
environmental regulations affecting pipeline operations;
operational hazards and risks;
pipeline tariff regulations affecting the rates HEP can charge;
limitations on additional borrowings and other restrictions due to HEP's debt covenants; and
other financial, operational and legal risks.

The occurrence of any of these risks could directly or indirectly affect HEP's as well as our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows as HEP is a consolidated VIE. Additionally, these risks could affect HEP's ability to continue operations which could affect their ability to serve our supply and distribution network needs.

For additional information about HEP, see “Holly Energy Partners, L.P.” under Items 1 and 2, “Business and Properties.” For risks related to HEP's business, see Item 1A of HEP's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2016 .

We are exposed to the credit risks, and certain other risks, of our key customers and vendors.

We are subject to risks of loss resulting from nonpayment or nonperformance by our customers. We derive a significant portion of our revenues from contracts with key customers.


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If any of our key customers default on their obligations to us, our financial results could be adversely affected. Furthermore, some of our customers may be highly leveraged and subject to their own operating and regulatory risks. In addition, nonperformance by vendors who have committed to provide us with products or services could result in higher costs or interfere with our ability to successfully conduct our business.

Any substantial increase in the nonpayment and/or nonperformance by our customers or vendors could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows.

Terrorist attacks (including cyber-attacks), and the threat of terrorist attacks or domestic vandalism, have resulted in increased costs to our business. Continued global hostilities or other sustained military campaigns may adversely impact our results of operations.

The long-term impacts of terrorist attacks, such as the attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, and the threat of future terrorist attacks (including cyber-attacks) on the energy transportation industry in general, and on us in particular, are unknown. Increased security measures taken by us as a precaution against possible terrorist attacks or vandalism have resulted in increased costs to our business. Uncertainty surrounding continued global hostilities or other sustained military campaigns, and the possibility that infrastructure facilities could be direct targets of, or indirect casualties of, an act of terror, may affect our operations in unpredictable ways, including disruptions of crude oil supplies and markets for refined products. In addition, disruption or significant increases in energy prices could result in government-imposed price controls. Any one of, or a combination of, these occurrences could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

Changes in the insurance markets attributable to terrorist attacks could make certain types of insurance more difficult for us to obtain. Moreover, the insurance that may be available to us may be significantly more expensive than our existing insurance coverage. Instability in the financial markets as a result of terrorism or war could also affect our ability to raise capital including our ability to repay or refinance debt.

Increases in required fuel economy and regulation of CO 2 emissions from motor vehicles may reduce demand for transportation fuels.

In 2010, the EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (“NHTSA”) finalized new standards, raising the required Corporate Average Fuel Economy (“CAFE”) of the nation's passenger fleet by 40% to approximately 35 miles per gallon (“m.p.g.”) by 2016 and imposing the first-ever federal GHG emissions standards on cars and light trucks. In September 2011, the EPA and the Department of Transportation finalized first-time standards for fuel economy of medium and heavy duty trucks. On August 28, 2012, the EPA and NHTSA adopted standards through model year 2025 in two phases. The first phase establishes final standards for 2017-2021 model year vehicles that are projected to require 40.3 - 41.0 m.p.g. in model year 2021 on an average industry fleet-wide basis. The second phase of the CAFE program represents non-final “augural” standards for 2022-2025 model year vehicles that are projected to require 48.7 - 49.7 m.p.g. in model year 2025, on an average industry fleet-wide basis. Such increases in fuel economy standards, along with mandated increases in use of renewable fuels discussed above, could result in decreasing demand for petroleum fuels. Decreasing demand for petroleum fuels could have a material effect on our financial condition and results of operation.

To successfully operate our petroleum refining facilities, we are required to expend significant amounts for capital outlays and operating expenditures.

The refining business is characterized by high fixed costs resulting from the significant capital outlays associated with refineries, terminals, pipelines and related facilities. We are dependent on the production and sale of quantities of refined products at refined product margins sufficient to cover operating costs, including any increases in costs resulting from future inflationary pressures or market conditions and increases in costs of fuel and power necessary in operating our facilities. Furthermore, future major capital investment, various environmental compliance related projects, regulatory requirements or competitive pressures could result in additional capital expenditures, which may not produce a return on investment. Such capital expenditures may require significant financial resources that may be contingent on our access to capital markets and commercial bank loans. Additionally, other matters, such as regulatory requirements or legal actions, may restrict our access to funds for capital expenditures.


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Our refineries consist of many processing units, a number of which have been in operation for many years. One or more of the units may require unscheduled downtime for unanticipated maintenance or repairs that are more frequent than our scheduled turnaround for such units. Scheduled and unscheduled maintenance could reduce our revenues during the period of time that the units are not operating. We have taken significant measures to expand and upgrade units in our refineries by installing new equipment and redesigning older equipment to improve refinery capacity. The installation and redesign of key equipment at our refineries involves significant uncertainties, including the following: our upgraded equipment may not perform at expected throughput levels; operating costs of the upgraded equipment may be higher than expected; the yield and product quality of new equipment may differ from design and/or specifications and redesign, modification or replacement of the equipment may be required to correct equipment that does not perform as expected, which could require facility shutdowns until the equipment has been redesigned or modified. Any of these risks associated with new equipment, redesigned older equipment, or repaired equipment could lead to lower revenues or higher costs or otherwise have a negative impact on our future financial condition and results of operations.

In addition, we expect to execute turnarounds at our refineries, which involve numerous risks and uncertainties. These risks include delays and incurrence of additional and unforeseen costs. The turnarounds allow us to perform maintenance, upgrades, overhaul and repair of process equipment and materials, during which time all or a portion of the refinery will be under scheduled downtime.

We may be unable to pay future dividends.

We will only be able to pay dividends from our available cash on hand, cash from operations or borrowings under our credit agreement. The declaration of future dividends on our common stock will be at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend upon many factors, including our results of operations, financial condition, earnings, capital requirements, and restrictions in our debt agreements and legal requirements. We cannot assure you that any dividends will be paid or the frequency or amounts of such payments.

Product liability claims and litigation could adversely affect our business and results of operations.

A significant portion of our operating responsibility on refined product pipelines is to insure the quality and purity of the products loaded at our loading racks. If our quality control measures were to fail, we may have contaminated or off-specification commingled pipelines and storage tanks or off-specification product could be sent to public gasoline stations. These types of incidents could result in product liability claims from our customers.

Product liability is a significant commercial risk. Substantial damage awards have been made in certain jurisdictions against manufacturers and resellers based upon claims for injuries caused by the use of or exposure to various products. There can be no assurance that product liability claims against us would not have a material adverse effect on our business or results of operations or our ability to maintain existing customers or retain new customers.

Our hedging transactions may limit our gains and expose us to other risks.

We periodically enter into derivative transactions as it relates to inventory levels and/or future production to manage the risks from changes in the prices of crude oil, refined products and other feedstocks. These transactions limit our potential gains if commodity prices move above or below the certain price levels established by our hedging instruments. We hedge price risk on inventories above our target levels to minimize the impact these price fluctuations have on our earnings and cash flows. Consequently, our hedging results may fluctuate significantly from one reporting period to the next depending on commodity price fluctuations and our relative physical inventory positions. These transactions may also expose us to risks of financial losses; for example, if our production is less than we anticipated at the time we entered into a hedge agreement or if a counterparty to our hedge agreements fails to perform its obligations under the agreements.

Changes in our credit profile, or a significant increase in the price of crude oil, may affect our relationship with our suppliers, which could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and limit our ability to purchase sufficient quantities of crude oil to operate our refineries at desired capacity.

An unfavorable credit profile, or a significant increase in the price of crude oil, could affect the way crude oil suppliers view our ability to make payments and induce them to shorten the payment terms of their invoices with us or require credit enhancement. Due to the large dollar amounts and volume of our crude oil and other feedstock purchases, any imposition by our suppliers of more burdensome payment terms or credit enhancement requirements on us may have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and our ability to make payments to our suppliers. This in turn could cause us to be unable to operate our refineries at desired capacity. A failure to operate our refineries at desired capacity could adversely affect our profitability and cash flow.


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Our credit facility contains certain covenants and restrictions that may constrain our business and financing activities.

The operating and financial restrictions and covenants in our credit facility and any future financing agreements could adversely affect our ability to finance future operations or capital needs or to engage, expand or pursue our business activities. For example, our revolving credit facility imposes usual and customary requirements for this type of credit facility, including: (i) limitations on liens and indebtedness; (ii) a prohibition on changes in control and (iii) restrictions on engaging in mergers and consolidations. If we fail to satisfy the covenants set forth in the credit facility or another event of default occurs under the credit facility, the maturity of the loan could be accelerated or we could be prohibited from borrowing for our future working capital needs and issuing letters of credit. We might not have, or be able to obtain, sufficient funds to make these immediate payments. If we desire to undertake a transaction that is prohibited by the covenants in our credit facility, we will need to obtain consent under our credit facility. Such refinancing may not be possible or may not be available on commercially acceptable terms.

Our business may suffer due to a departure of any of our key senior executives or other key employees. Furthermore, a shortage of skilled labor or disruptions in our labor force may make it difficult for us to maintain labor productivity.

Our future performance depends to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of our senior management team and key technical personnel. We do not currently maintain key man life insurance, non-compete agreements, or employment agreements with respect to any member of our senior management team. The loss or unavailability to us of any member of our senior management team or a key technical employee could significantly harm us. We face competition for these professionals from our competitors, our customers and other companies operating in our industry. To the extent that the services of members of our senior management team and key technical personnel would be unavailable to us for any reason, we may be required to hire other personnel to manage and operate our company. We may not be able to locate or employ such qualified personnel on acceptable terms, or at all.

Furthermore, our operations require skilled and experienced laborers with proficiency in multiple tasks. A shortage of trained workers due to retirements or otherwise could have an adverse impact on our labor productivity and costs and our ability to expand production in the event there is an increase in the demand for our products and services, which could adversely affect our operations.

As of December 31, 2016 , approximately 34% of our employees were represented by labor unions under collective bargaining agreements with various expiration dates. We may not be able to renegotiate our collective bargaining agreements when they expire on satisfactory terms or at all. A failure to do so may increase our costs. In addition, our existing labor agreements may not prevent a strike or work stoppage at any of our facilities in the future, and any work stoppage could negatively affect our results of operations and financial condition.

The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly, and the value of a stockholder’s investment could be impacted.

The market price of our common stock may be influenced by many factors, some of which are beyond our control, including:

our quarterly or annual earnings or those of other companies in our industry;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
general economic, industry and stock market conditions;
the failure of securities analysts to cover our common stock or changes in financial estimates by analysts;
future sales of our common stock;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts or acquisitions;
sales of common stock by us, our senior officers or our affiliates; and/or
the other factors described in these Risk Factors.

In recent years, the stock market has experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations. This volatility has had a significant impact on the market price of securities issued by many companies, including companies in our industry. The price of our common stock could fluctuate based upon factors that have little or nothing to do with our company, and these fluctuations could materially reduce our stock price.


Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

We do not have any unresolved staff comments.



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Item 3.      Legal Proceedings

Commitment and Contingency Reserves

We periodically establish reserves for certain legal proceedings. The establishment of a reserve involves an estimation process that includes the advice of legal counsel and subjective judgment of management. While management believes these reserves to be adequate, future changes in the facts and circumstances could result in the actual liability exceeding the estimated ranges of loss and amounts accrued.

While the outcome and impact on us cannot be predicted with certainty, based on advice of counsel, management believes that the resolution of these proceedings through settlement or adverse judgment will not either individually or in the aggregate have a materially adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Environmental Matters

We are reporting the following proceedings to comply with SEC regulations which require us to disclose proceedings arising under federal, state or local provisions regulating the discharge of materials into the environment or protecting the environment if we reasonably believe that such proceedings may result in monetary sanctions of $100,000 or more. Our respective subsidiaries have or will develop corrective action plans regarding these disclosures that will be implemented in consultation with the respective federal and state agencies. It is not possible to predict the ultimate outcome of these proceedings, although none are currently expected to have a material effect on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.

Cheyenne
HollyFrontier Cheyenne Refining LLC (“HFCR”), our wholly-owned subsidiary, completed certain environmental audits at the Cheyenne Refinery regarding compliance with federal and state environmental requirements. By letters dated October 5, 2012, November 7, 2012, and January 10, 2013, and pursuant to the EPA's audit policy to the extent applicable, HFCR submitted reports to the EPA voluntarily disclosing non-compliance with certain emission limitations, reporting requirements, and provisions of a 2009 federal consent decree. By letters dated October 31, 2012; February 6, 2013; June 21, 2013; July 9, 2013 and July 25, 2013, and pursuant to applicable Wyoming audit statutes, HFCR submitted environmental audit reports to the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (“WDEQ”) voluntarily disclosing non-compliance with certain notification, reporting, and other provisions of the refinery's state air permit and other environmental regulatory requirements. No further action has been taken by either agency at this time.

El Dorado
The El Dorado Refinery has been engaged in discussions with the EPA regarding potential Clean Air Act violations relating to flaring devices at the refinery as well as other equipment. The El Dorado Refinery has responded to two separate information requests covering air emissions for a time frame from January 1, 2009 through May 31, 2014. The EPA also conducted an on-site Clean Air Act - Sec. 112r Risk Management Program (“RMP”) compliance audit at the El Dorado Refinery and notified the El Dorado Refinery of 20 alleged “deficiencies” related to that inspection. Although no Notice or Finding of Violation has been issued by the EPA in connection with either the Clean Air Act inquiry or the 112r inspection, the EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have indicated that the federal government believes it has claims for civil penalties relating to the information provided in response to the information requests and the RMP inspection. We have had a preliminary discussion with the government parties, are continuing to evaluate the relevant law and facts and will continue to work with the EPA regarding these matters.

Tulsa
HollyFrontier Tulsa Refining LLC (“HFTR”) manufactures paraffin and hydrocarbon waxes at its Tulsa West facility. On March 11, 2014, the EPA issued a notice to HFTR of possible violations of certain provisions of the federal Toxic Substances Control Act in connection with the manufacture of certain of these products. HFTR and the EPA met and are working productively towards a settlement of this matter.

Other

We are a party to various other litigation and proceedings that we believe, based on advice of counsel, will not either individually or in the aggregate have a materially adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.


Item 4.
Mine Safety Disclosures

Not Applicable.



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PART II

Item 5.
Market for the Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

Our common stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “HFC.” The following table sets forth the range of the daily high and low sales prices per share of common stock, dividends declared per share and the trading volume of common stock for the periods indicated:

Years Ended December 31,
 
High
 
Low
 
Dividends
 
Trading Volume
2016
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth quarter
 
$
34.13

 
$
22.63

 
$
0.33

 
227,228,500

Third quarter
 
$
27.98

 
$
22.07

 
$
0.33

 
263,014,600

Second quarter
 
$
37.98

 
$
22.53

 
$
0.33

 
201,750,800

First quarter
 
$
41.29

 
$
29.00

 
$
0.33

 
197,404,600

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Fourth quarter
 
$
52.30

 
$
39.00

 
$
0.33

 
153,988,900

Third quarter
 
$
54.73

 
$
42.68

 
$
0.33

 
213,026,200

Second quarter
 
$
43.71

 
$
35.89

 
$
0.33

 
157,763,200

First quarter
 
$
45.05

 
$
30.15

 
$
0.32

 
210,069,400


In May 2015, our Board of Directors approved a $1 billion share repurchase program authorizing us to repurchase common stock in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions based on market conditions, securities law limitations and other relevant considerations. The following table includes repurchases made under this program during the fourth quarter of 2016 .

Period
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
 
Average Price
Paid Per Share
 
Total Number of
Shares Purchased
as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs
 
Maximum Dollar
Value of Shares
that May Yet Be
Purchased under the Plans or Programs
October 2016
 

 
$

 

 
$
178,811,213

November 2016
 

 
$

 

 
$
178,811,213

December 2016
 

 
$

 

 
$
178,811,213

Total for October to December 2016
 

 
 
 

 
 


As of February 13, 2017 , we had approximately 98,039 stockholders, including beneficial owners holding shares in street name.

We intend to consider the declaration of a dividend on a quarterly basis, although there is no assurance as to future dividends since they are dependent upon future earnings, capital requirements, our financial condition and other factors.



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Item 6.
Selected Financial Data

The following table shows our selected financial information as of the dates or for the periods indicated. This table should be read in conjunction with Item 7, “Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.

 
Years Ended December 31,
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
2013
 
2012
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
FINANCIAL DATA
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
For the period
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Sales and other revenues
$
10,535,700

 
$
13,237,920

 
$
19,764,327

 
$
20,160,560

 
$
20,090,724

Income (loss) before income taxes (1,2)
(171,534
)
 
1,208,568

 
467,500

 
1,159,399

 
2,787,995

Income tax provision
19,411

 
406,060

 
141,172

 
391,576

 
1,027,962

Net income (loss)
(190,945
)
 
802,508

 
326,328

 
767,823

 
1,760,033

Less net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
69,508

 
62,407

 
45,036

 
31,981

 
32,861

Net income (loss) attributable to HollyFrontier stockholders
$
(260,453
)
 
$
740,101

 
$
281,292

 
$
735,842

 
$
1,727,172

Earnings (loss) per share attributable to HollyFrontier stockholders - basic
$
(1.48
)
 
$
3.91

 
$
1.42

 
$
3.66

 
$
8.41

Earnings (loss) per share attributable to HollyFrontier stockholders - diluted
$
(1.48
)
 
$
3.90

 
$
1.42

 
$
3.64

 
$
8.38

Cash dividends declared per common share
$
1.32

 
$
1.31

 
$
3.26

 
$
3.20

 
$
3.10

Average number of common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
176,101

 
188,731

 
197,243

 
200,419

 
204,379

Diluted
176,101

 
188,940

 
197,428

 
201,234

 
205,274

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
602,271

 
$
979,626

 
$
758,596

 
$
869,174

 
$
1,662,687

Net cash used for investing activities
$
(801,597
)
 
$
(381,748
)
 
$
(292,322
)
 
$
(526,735
)
 
$
(711,104
)
Net cash provided by (used for) financing activities
$
843,372

 
$
(1,099,330
)
 
$
(838,392
)
 
$
(1,160,035
)
 
$
(772,788
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
At end of period
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash, cash equivalents and investments in marketable securities
$
1,134,727

 
$
210,552

 
$
1,042,095

 
$
1,665,263

 
$
2,393,401

Working capital
$
1,767,780

 
$
587,450

 
$
1,549,004

 
$
2,445,953

 
$
2,961,037

Total assets
$
9,435,661

 
$
8,388,299

 
$
9,230,047

 
$
10,055,763

 
$
10,326,628

Total debt  (3)
$
2,235,137

 
$
1,040,040

 
$
1,054,297

 
$
996,543

 
$
1,333,869

Total equity
$
5,301,985

 
$
5,809,773

 
$
6,100,719

 
$
6,609,398

 
$
6,642,658



(1)
Reflects non-cash lower of cost or market inventory valuation adjustments that increased pre-tax earnings by $291.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 and decreased pre-tax earnings by $227.0 million and $397.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, respectively.

(2)
Includes goodwill and long-lived asset impairment charges of $309.3 million and $344.8 million , respectively, that relate to our Cheyenne Refinery, for the year ended December 31, 2016.

(3)
Includes total HEP debt of $1,243.9 million , $1,008.8 million , $867.0 million , $806.7 million and $863.5 million , respectively, which is non-recourse to HollyFrontier.



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Item 7.
Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

This Item 7 contains “forward-looking” statements. See “Forward-Looking Statements” at the beginning of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. In this document, the words “we,” “our,” “ours” and “us” refer only to HollyFrontier and its consolidated subsidiaries or to HollyFrontier or an individual subsidiary and not to any other person with certain exceptions. Generally, the words “we,” “our,” “ours” and “us” include HEP and its subsidiaries as consolidated subsidiaries of HollyFrontier, unless when used in disclosures of transactions or obligations between HEP and HollyFrontier or its other subsidiaries. This document contains certain disclosures of agreements that are specific to HEP and its consolidated subsidiaries and do not necessarily represent obligations of HollyFrontier. When used in descriptions of agreements and transactions, “HEP” refers to HEP and its consolidated subsidiaries.


Overview

We are principally an independent petroleum refiner that produces high-value refined products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel, specialty lubricant products, and specialty and modified asphalt. We own and operate refineries having a combined nameplate crude oil processing capacity of 457,000 barrels per day that serve markets throughout the Mid-Continent, Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Our refineries are located in El Dorado, Kansas (the El Dorado Refinery), Tulsa, Oklahoma (the Tulsa Refineries), which comprise two production facilities, the Tulsa West and East facilities, Artesia, New Mexico, which operates in conjunction with crude, vacuum distillation and other facilities situated 65 miles away in Lovington, New Mexico (collectively, the Navajo Refinery), Cheyenne, Wyoming (the Cheyenne Refinery) and Woods Cross, Utah (the Woods Cross Refinery).

On October 29, 2016, our wholly-owned subsidiary, 9952110 Canada Inc. (“Purchaser”), entered into a share purchase agreement with Suncor Energy Inc. (“Suncor”) to acquire 100% of the outstanding capital stock of Petro-Canada Lubricants Inc. (“PCLI”) that closed on February 1, 2017. Cash consideration paid was CAD $1.125 billion, including working capital with an estimated value of CAD $342 million. The PCLI plant, located in Mississauga, Ontario, is the largest producer of base oils in Canada with 15,600 BPD of lubricant production capacity, and is the only North American producer of high margin Group III base oils.

For the year ended December 31, 2016 , net loss attributable to HollyFrontier stockholders was $260.5 million compared to net income of $740.1 million and $281.3 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 , and 2014 , respectively. Overall gross refining margins per produced product sold for 2016 decreased 48% over the year ended December 31, 2015 , which was due principally to lower crack spreads throughout 2016. Included in our financial results for the current year were non-cash items consisting of goodwill and long-lived asset impairment charges, offset by an inventory reserve adjustment.

Pursuant to the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, the EPA promulgated the RFS2 regulations, which increased the volume of renewable fuels mandated to be blended into the nation's fuel supply. The regulations, in part, require refiners to add annually increasing amounts of “renewable fuels” to their petroleum products or purchase credits, known as RINs, in lieu of such blending. Compliance with RFS2 regulations significantly increases our cost of products sold, with RINs costs totaling $242.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 . Year-over-year increased costs of ethanol blended into our petroleum products, which exceeded the cost of crude oil, also contributed to lower refining margins for the year.


OUTLOOK

Our profitability is affected by the spread, or differential, between the market prices for crude oil on the world market (which is based on the price for Brent, North Sea Crude) and the price for inland U.S. crude oil (which is based on the price for WTI). We expect continued volatility in the pricing relationship between inland and coastal crude, currently averaging in the range of $1.00 to $2.00 per barrel.

We have recently curtailed production at the Woods Cross refinery due to insufficient crude supply provided by the Plains Rocky Mountain Pipeline. We are unable to predict the duration of the supply disruption at this time, but are considering alternative solutions and working with Plains and others to rectify the situation.  

Our RINs costs are material and represent a cost of products sold. The price of RINs may be extremely volatile due to real or perceived future shortages in RINs. As of December 31, 2016 , we are purchasing RINs in order to meet approximately half of our renewable fuel requirements.

A more detailed discussion of our financial and operating results for the years ended December 31, 2016 , 2015 and 2014 is presented in the following sections.

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38


Results Of Operations

Financial Data
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(In thousands, except per share data)
Sales and other revenues
 
$
10,535,700

 
$
13,237,920

 
$
19,764,327

Operating costs and expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products sold (exclusive of depreciation and amortization):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cost of products sold (exclusive of lower of cost or market inventory valuation adjustment)
 
8,765,927

 
10,239,218

 
17,228,385

Lower of cost or market inventory valuation adjustment
 
(291,938
)
 
226,979

 
397,478

 
 
8,473,989

 
10,466,197

 
17,625,863

Operating expenses (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)
 
1,018,839

 
1,060,373

 
1,144,940

General and administrative expenses (exclusive of depreciation and amortization)
 
125,648

 
120,846

 
114,609

Depreciation and amortization
 
363,027

 
346,151

 
363,381

Goodwill and asset impairment
 
654,084

 

 

Total operating costs and expenses
 
10,635,587

 
11,993,567

 
19,248,793

Income (loss) from operations
 
(99,887
)
 
1,244,353

 
515,534

Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings (loss) of equity method investments
 
14,213

 
(3,738
)
 
(2,007
)
Interest income
 
2,491

 
3,391

 
4,430

Interest expense
 
(72,192
)
 
(43,470
)
 
(43,646
)
Loss on early extinguishment of debt
 
(8,718
)
 
(1,370
)
 
(7,677
)
Other, net
 
(7,441
)
 
9,402

 
866

 
 
(71,647
)
 
(35,785
)
 
(48,034
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
 
(171,534
)
 
1,208,568

 
467,500

Income tax provision
 
19,411

 
406,060

 
141,172

Net income (loss)
 
(190,945
)
 
802,508

 
326,328

Less net income attributable to noncontrolling interest
 
69,508

 
62,407

 
45,036

Net income (loss) attributable to HollyFrontier stockholders
 
$
(260,453
)
 
$
740,101

 
$
281,292

Earnings (loss) per share attributable to HollyFrontier stockholders:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
$
(1.48
)
 
$
3.91

 
$
1.42

Diluted
 
$
(1.48
)
 
$
3.90

 
$
1.42

Cash dividends declared per common share
 
$
1.32

 
$
1.31

 
$
3.26

Average number of common shares outstanding:
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
 
176,101

 
188,731

 
197,243

Diluted
 
176,101

 
188,940

 
197,428



Other Financial Data
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
 
 
(In thousands)
Net cash provided by operating activities
 
$
602,271

 
$
979,626

 
$
758,596

Net cash used for investing activities
 
$
(801,597
)
 
$
(381,748
)
 
$
(292,322
)
Net cash provided by (used for) financing activities
 
$
843,372

 
$
(1,099,330
)
 
$
(838,392
)
Capital expenditures
 
$
479,790

 
$
676,155

 
$
564,821

EBITDA (1)
 
$
200,404

 
$
1,533,761

 
$
832,738

Adjusted EBITDA (2)
 
$
575,956

 
$
1,760,740

 
$
1,230,216


(1)
Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization, which we refer to as “EBITDA,” is calculated as net income (loss) plus (i) interest expense, net of interest income, (ii) income tax provision, and (iii) depreciation and amortization.


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(2)
"Adjusted EBITDA" is calculated as EBITDA plus or minus (i) lower of cost or market inventory valuation adjustment and (ii) goodwill and asset impairment charges. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not calculations provided for under GAAP; however, the amounts included in these calculations are derived from amounts included in our consolidated financial statements. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered as alternatives to net income or operating income as an indication of our operating performance or as an alternative to operating cash flow as a measure of liquidity. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are not necessarily comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies. They are presented here because they are widely used financial indicators used by investors and analysts to measure performance. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA are also used by our management for internal analysis and as a basis for financial covenants. EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA presented above are reconciled to net income under “Reconciliations to Amounts Reported Under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles” following Item 7A of Part II of this Form 10-K.

Our operations are organized into two reportable segments, Refining and HEP. See Note 20 “Segment Information” in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements for additional information on our reportable segments.

Refining Operating Data

Our refinery operations include the El Dorado, Tulsa, Navajo, Cheyenne and Woods Cross Refineries. The following tables set forth information, including non-GAAP performance measures about our consolidated refinery operations. The cost of products and refinery gross and net operating margins do not include the non-cash effects of goodwill and asset impairments charges, lower of cost or market inventory valuation adjustments and depreciation and amortization. Reconciliations to amounts reported under GAAP are provided under “Reconciliations to Amounts Reported Under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles” following Item 7A of Part II of this Form 10-K.
 
 
Years Ended December 31,
 
 
2016
 
2015
 
2014
Consolidated
 
 
 
 
 
 
Crude charge (BPD) (1)
 
423,910

 
432,560

 
406,180

Refinery throughput (BPD) (2)
 
457,480

 
463,580

 
436,400

Refinery production (BPD) (3)
 
442,110

 
446,560

 
425,010

Sales of produced refined products (BPD)
 
435,420

 
438,000

 
420,990

Sales of refined products (BPD) (4)
 
464,980

 
488,350

 
461,640

Refinery utilization (5)
 
92.8
%
 
97.6
%
 
91.7
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Average per produced barrel (6)
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net sales
 
$
58.02

 
$
71.32

 
$
110.19

Cost of products (7)
 
49.64

 
55.25

 
96.21

Refinery gross margin (8)
 
8.38

 
16.07

 
13.98

Refinery operating expenses (9)
 
5.57

 
5.71

 
6.38

Net operating margin (8)
 
$
2.81

 
$
10.36

 
$
7.60

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Refinery operating expenses per throughput barrel (10)
 
$
5.30

 
$
5.39

 
$
6.16


(1)
Crude charge represents the barrels per day of crude oil processed at our refineries.
(2)
Refinery throughput represents the barrels per day of crude and other refinery feedstocks input to the crude units and other conversion units at our refineries.
(3)
Refinery production represents the barrels per day of refined products yielded from processing crude and other refinery feedstocks through the crude units and other conversion units at our refineries.
(4)
Includes refined products purchased for resale.
(5)
Represents crude charge divided by total crude capacity (BPSD). Effective July 1, 2016, our consolidated crude capacity increased from 443,000 BPSD to 457,000 BPSD upon completion of our Woods Cross Refinery expansion project.
(6)
Represents average per barrel amount for produced refined products sold, which is a non-GAAP measure. Reconciliations to amounts reported under GAAP are provided under “Reconciliations to Amounts Reported Under Generally Accepted Accounting Principles” following Item 7A of Part II of this Form 10-K.
(7)
Transportation, terminal and refinery storage costs billed from HEP are included in cost of products.
(8)
Excludes lower of cost or market inventory valuation adjustments of that increased refinery gross margin by $291.9 million for the year ended December 31, 2016 and decreased refinery gross margin by $227.0 million and $397.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014 , respectively.
(9)
Represents operating expenses of our refineries, exclusive of depreciation and amortization.

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(10)
Represents refinery operating expenses, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, divided by refinery throughput.


41

Table of Content


Results of Operations – Year Ended December 31, 2016 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2015

Summary
Net loss attributable to HollyFrontier stockholders for the year ended December 31, 2016 was $260.5 million ( $1.48 per basic and diluted share), a $1,000.6 million decrease compared to net income attributable to HollyFrontier stockholders of $740.1 million ( $3.91 per basic and $3.90 per diluted share) for the year ended December 31, 2015 . Net income decreased due principally to non-cash goodwill and long-lived asset impairment charges of $309.3 million and $344.8 million , respectively, and a year-over-year decrease in refining margins and sales volumes, net of the effects of a year-over-year change in lower of cost or market inventory reserve adjustments. For the year ended December 31, 2016 , lower of cost or market inventory reserve adjustments increased pre-tax earnings by $291.9 million compared to a pre-tax earnings decrease of $227.0 million for the year ended December 31, 2015